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Physalis peruviana Linnaeus, the multiple properties of a highly functional fruit: A review

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Physalis peruviana Linnaeus, the multiple properties of a highly functional fruit: A review
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  Review Physalis peruviana  Linnaeus, the multiple properties of a highly functional fruit:A review Luis A. Puente a, ⁎ , Claudia A. Pinto-Muñoz a , Eduardo S. Castro a , Misael Cortés b a Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Ciencia de los Alimentos y Tecnología Química. Av. Vicuña Mackenna 20, Casilla, Santiago, Chile b Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Departamento de Ingeniería Agrícola y de Alimento, A.A. 568 Medellin Colombia a b s t r a c ta r t i c l e i n f o  Article history: Received 19 July 2010Accepted 28 September 2010 Keywords:Physalis peruviana Bioactive compoundsFunctional foodPhysalinsWithanolides Themainobjective ofthisworkis tospreadthe physicochemical andnutritional characteristics ofthe  Physalis peruviana  L. fruit and the relation of their physiologically active components with bene 󿬁 cial effects on humanhealth,throughscienti 󿬁 callyproveninformation.Italsodescribestheiropticalandmechanicalpropertiesandpresents micrographs of the complex microstructure of   P. peruviana  L. fruit and studies on the antioxidantcapacity of polyphenols present in this fruit.© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Contents 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17332. Uses and medicinal properties of the fruit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17343. Microstructural analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17344. Mechanical properties of the fruit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17355. Optical properties of the fruit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17356. Antioxidant properties of fruit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17357. Physicochemical and nutritional composition of the fruit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17367.1. Proteins and carbohydrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17367.2. Lipids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17367.3. Phytosterols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17377.4. Minerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17377.5. Vitamins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17387.6. Physalins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17387.7. Withanolides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17398. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1739References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1739 1. Introduction Physalis peruviana , also known as uchuva in Colombia, uvilla inEcuador,aguaymantoinPerú,topotopoinVenezuelaandgoldenberryin English speaking countries are some of the multiple names for thisfruit around the world.Thebotanicalnameof theplantis  P. peruviana Linnaeus,belongingto the family Solanaceae and genus  Physalis , there are more than 80varieties that can be found in the wilderness (Cedeño & Montenegro,2004).  P. peruviana  L  .  is an herbaceous, semi-shrub, upright, andperennial in subtropical zones plant, it can grows until reach 0.6 to0.9 mandinsomecasescangrowupto1.8 m.The 󿬂 owercanbeeasilypollinated by insects, wind and also by auto-pollination. The fruit is a juicy berry with ovoid shape and a diameter between 1.25 to 2.50 cm,4 and 10 g weight, containing inside around 100 to 200 small seeds,the fruit is protected by the calyx or fruit basket which completely Food Research International 44 (2011) 1733 – 1740 ⁎  Corresponding author. E-mail address:  lpuente@ciq.uchile.cl (L.A. Puente).0963-9969/$  –  see front matter © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2010.09.034 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Food Research International  journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/foodres  covers the fruit along their development and ripening, protecting itagainst insects, birds, diseases and adverse climatic situations.Moreover, this structure represents an essential source of carbohy-drates during the  󿬁 rst 20 days of growth and development (Tapia &Fries, 2007). P. peruviana  L. is a native plant from the Andes region, transcend-ing the history of the pre-Incan and Incan periods, throughout SouthAmerica. This plant has been kept intact and without apparentchanges in the structure of their germplasm. The centre of srcinaccording to Legge in 1974 (Legge, 1974) were the Peruvian Andes,but according to a study made by the countries belonging to theAndres Bello Convention in 1983, a larger area was identi 󿬁 ed as thesrcin of the fruit of   P. peruviana  L. including the Ecuadorian Andes(Brito, 2002).Although growing of   P. peruviana  L. extends all over the SouthAmerican Andes and it has been found for two decades in marketsfrom Venezuela to Chile (National Research Council (NRC), 1989), isin Colombia where it is grown for export and the country reached theleadasthelargestproducerfollowedbySouthAfrica(Mazorra,2006).Colombia produces 11,500 ton/year of   P. peruviana  L. fruit, but thesurplus of fruit, not intended for export reached 50% of totalproduction, this fruit is not exportable due to its size, so it is usedfor new dehydrated products (Castro, Rodriguez, & Vargas, 2008).The species  P. peruviana  L. was introduced in South Africa by theSpanish and from there moved to different countries of the tropic andsub-tropics where it is grown commercially. Commercial varietieshave been reported in the U.S. and New Zealand (Mazorra, 2006). P. peruviana  L. is able to grow in a wide range of altitude from3300 m above sea level. It can withstand low temperatures, but sufferirreparable damage below 0 °C, their growth is affected if tempera-tures remain under 10 °C. The optimum temperature is 18 °C. Veryhigh temperatures can affect  󿬂 owering and fruiting. It requires highluminescence and must be protected from excessive wind. It musthave enough water during the initial growth, but not during fruitripening. It is a plant with high potential, since it grows in poor soil,butwell-drainedandhaslowrequirementoffertilization. P.peruviana L. thrives best in slightly acid soil, although it tolerates well pH valuesbetween 5.5 and 7.3 with good organic matter content and rainfallbetween 1000 and 2000 mm. It does not tolerate clay soils because ithas super 󿬁 cial roots (Tapia & Fries, 2007).Thetimebetweentheinitiationofgerminationandthe 󿬁 rstcropisapproximately nine months. The serviceable life of the plantproduction goes from nine to eleven months from the time of the 󿬁 rst harvest, since thereafter both the productivity and fruit qualitydecrease(Tapia& Fries,2007).Theshelflife ofthefruitof  P. peruviana L. with calyx is one month while without calyx is 4 to 5 days or so(Cedeño & Montenegro, 2004). P. peruviana  L. has been classi 󿬁 ed into ecotypes or plants fromdifferent regions or countries, which are differentiated by size, colourand taste, shape of the  󿬂 ower head and the height and size of theplant.Threetypesarecurrentlygrownfrom P. peruviana L.srcinatingfrom Colombia, Kenya and South Africa (Almanza & Espinosa, 1995). The Colombian type is characterized by small fruits with an averageweight of 5 g, with more vivid colour and higher sugar contentcompared with ecotypes of Kenya and South Africa, these featuresmake it more palatable to the markets (Almanza & Espinosa, 1995;Fischer, Florez, & Sora, 2000), in addition to other morphologicalcharacteristics as diverse as the calyx, the postharvest behaviour andtaste (Almanza et al., 1995).This work consists of a literature review about the fruit of   P. peruviana  L., from general topics and agro-food, mechanical, physi-cochemical, nutritional and medicinal features. The development of functional products from the fruit of   P. peruviana  L., representsanother alternative for the exploitation of this resource, to supple-menttheirnutritional valueandpromotenewexportchannels(Sloan& Stiedemann, 1996). Thus, one can establish a niche for futurescienti 󿬁 c research, being a fruit used in Andean folk medicine sinceancient times, most existing information is not guaranteed byscienti 󿬁 c studies, so the collection is necessary mainly to  󿬁 lter themost important and reliable information. This work is intendedprimarily to describe the mechanical, physicochemical, nutritionaland medicinal properties associated with the fruit of   P. peruviana  L.and to determine the functionality of the fruit by previous studies. Inaddition it seeks to highlight the use of the fruit in regions such asChile where it is not known massively, so a new industry and aresearch item as a fruit it can be set up in this region. 2. Uses and medicinal properties of the fruit Generally, the fruitof   P. peruviana L.is consumedfresh;it providesan acid-sweet balance of fruit and vegetable salads. Also, the wholefruit can be used in syrup and dried as it becomes a  “ very nice raisin ” .The fruit of   P. peruviana  L. is also used in sauces and glazes for meatsand seafood. Also it can be used as preservative for jams and jellies(National Research Council (NRC), 1989).Currently, there are different products processed for the fruit of   P. peruviana  L., such as, jams, raisins and chocolate-covered candies. Itcan also be processed for juice (Ramadan & Moersel, 2007), pomace (Ramadan&Moersel,2009)andotherproductssweetenedwithsugaras a snack. In European markets, it is used as ornaments in meals,salads, desserts and cakes (Cedeño et al., 2004).The juice of the ripe fruit of   P. peruviana  L. is high in pectinase,reducing costs in the preparation of jams and other similarpreparations (Corporación Colombia Internacional (CCI), 2001).Many medicinal properties are attributed to  P. peruviana  L. such asantispasmodic, diuretic, antiseptic, sedative, analgesic, helping tofortify the optic nerve, throat trouble relief, elimination of intestinalparasites and amoeba. There have also been reported antidiabeticproperties, recommendingtheconsumptionof  󿬁 ve fruitsa day.Sofar,there are no studies that indicate possible adverse effects (Rodríguez& Rodríguez, 2007). In different regions of Colombia, some of itsmedicinalpropertiesaretopurifybloodofkidneys,decreasealbumin,clean the cataract, to calcify and control amebiasis (CorporaciónColombia Internacional (CCI), Universidad de los Andes, & Departa-mento de Planeación Nacional, 1994).In Peruvian traditional medicine the fruit of   P. peruviana  L., is usedempirically to treat cancer and other diseases like hepatitis, asthma,malaria and dermatitis, however, their properties have not beenscienti 󿬁 cally proven (Zavala et al., 2006).There are studies indicating that eating the fruit of   P. peruviana  L.reduces blood glucose after 90 min postprandial in young adults,causing a greater hypoglycemic effect after this period (Rodríguez &Rodríguez, 2007).The calyces of   P. peruviana  L. are widely used in folk medicine forits properties as anticancer, antimicrobial, antipyretic, diuretic, andanti-in 󿬂 ammatory immunomodulator (Franco, Matiz, Calle, Pinzon, &Ospina, 2007). 3. Microstructural analysis The surface of the fruit of   P. peruviana  L. has low permeability to 󿬂 uid exchange through it, this is due to microstructural complexitywhich hinders the use of techniques such as vacuum impregnation toincorporate new functional characteristics of the fruit, as well asosmotic dehydration process and hot air drying. The fruit surfacerepresents 95% of fruit which is a waxy 󿬁 lm composedmainly of resinterpenes, however, the area of the peduncle, corresponding to thebreaking point of the calyx, has a porous microstructure. Inmicrographs A and B taken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)to 90× and 100× of magni 󿬁 cation respectively from  P. peruviana  L.(See Fig. 1), it is possible to identify a totally different microstructurebetween two zones, one for compact, waxy and impermeable  󿬁 lm, 1734  L.A. Puente et al. / Food Research International 44 (2011) 1733 – 1740  and the other around the stems which are porous (Marín, 2009). Thelatter is currently used to generate added value to this fruit,incorporating physiologically active components within their struc-ture, using techniques as matrix engineering methodology to obtainfunctional foods from fresh fruits and vegetables (Botero, 2008;Marín, 2009; Restrepo, 2008). 4. Mechanical properties of the fruit Firmness is the resistance of a material to deformation orpenetration, where each material is characterized by a deformationcurve in response to varying levels of force or pressure. Authors suchas Ciro, Buitrago, and Pérez (2007), indicate that strong force is the best index on the practical level to determine the ripeness of a fruit atdifferent stages, allowing to establish the optimal levels of consump-tion, transport and handling of product and additionally is a goodpredictor of its potential shelf life and degree of softening.Botero (2008) conducted tests to assess the strength puncture thefruit of   P. peruviana  L. The graph shows a typical force – distance curvein this type of testing; it can be seen that this curve has a linearbehaviour at the start of the test, which denotes the elastic behaviourof the waxy  󿬁 lm that protects the fruit. It also shows that after thebreakpoint of the surface  󿬁 lm that protects the fruit, there is a veryuniform behaviour in the texture of the  󿬂 esh (see Fig. 2). Theparameters evaluated by different authors in this type of test are:maximum force (F max ) to which the external  󿬁 lm of the fruits breaks,breaking distance of this  󿬁 lm (Dr), slope ( ε *) and average force pulp(F pulp ) (See Table 1). The evolution of the force with penetrationdistance identi 󿬁 es the break point of the surface  󿬁 lm, whichcorresponds to the maximum force or breaking force (F max ) andbreaking distance (D r ).According to studies conducted by Ciro et al. (2007), resistance tofracture mechanics and strength of  󿬁 rmness in fruits of   P. peruviana  L.decrease during postharvest time, that srcinated primarily by theprocess of maturation and softening of the fruit. The fruit of   P. peruviana  L. with a greater degree of ripeness is more susceptible tomechanical damage at postharvest compared to immature fruit. 5. Optical properties of the fruit Recent studies (Marín, 2009) have indicated that the fresh fruit of  P. peruviana  L. presents two homogeneous groups, one includes thesamples measured in the area of the peduncle and the otherequatorial regions and the apex. At all times, samples of the areaaroundthe peduncleare clearer( N L*), less red( b a*)and more yellow( b b*) than other areas, this behaviour is attributed to the lowerconcentration of carotenoids in the area of the peduncle andphysiological changes during fruit ripening process. Authors such asBotero(2008)have studiedthe colourof the fresh fruitof   P. peruviana L. (degree of ripeness: 3 – 4), using spectrophotometry to determinethe re 󿬂 ection spectrum of the samples, thus obtaining colourcoordinates of CIE L* a* b* coordinates and psychometric chroma orsaturation (C*) and hue (h*) (See Table 2), where L* is an indicator of luminosity. The parameter a* indicates chromaticity on the green axis( − )tored(+)andb*chromaticityintheblueaxis( − )toyellow(+). 6. Antioxidant properties of fruit Interest in the antioxidant properties of fruits is relatively recent(Liu, Qiu, Ding, & Yao, 2008; Vijaya Kumar Reddy, Sreeramulu, &Raghunath, 2010), some of the medicinal properties of the fruit of   P. peruviana  L. are associated with the antioxidant capacity of poly-phenolspresentin the fruit.Some authorshave reportedvaluesof theantioxidant capacity of the fruit of   P. peruviana  L. (See Table 3),determined in terms of activity DPPH free radical scavenger (DPPHmethod),theconcentrationoftotalphenols(Folin – Ciocalteumethod)and the FRAP assay (Ferric Reducing / Antioxidant Power). Fig. 1.  Micrographs of   Physalis peruviana  L. obtained by SEM microscopy. Distance (mm)2468121086420-2Force (N) * F máx. F   pulp D r 10 Source: Botero, 2008. ε Fig. 2.  Typicalcurveofforce – distanceinapuncturetestofthefruitof  PhysalisperuvianaL .  Table 1 Textural characterization of the fruit of   Physalis peruviana  L.Parameter Restrepo (2008) Botero (2008) ε  (N/mm) 1.40±0.10 3.16±0.36Fr (N) 9.75±0.18 9.48±0.90Fp (N) 2.72±0.32 2.73±0.321735 L.A. Puente et al. / Food Research International 44 (2011) 1733 – 1740  These results may change during storage due to degradation of vitamin C and phenolic compounds, diminishing the ability toscavenging free radicals (Banias, Oreopoulou, & Thomopoulos, 1992;Peyrat-Maillard, Bonnely, Rondini, & Berset, 2001). Other authorshave found that DPPH methodology is affected by some as reducingthe Vitamin C and some organic acids naturally present in fruits(Kayashima & Katayama, 2002; Scalzo, Politi, Pellegrini, Mezzetti, &Battino, 2005). The process of oxidation of ascorbic acid depends onthe presence of transition metals such as copper or iron (Burdurlu,Koca, & Karadeniz, 2006), temperature, concentration of salts, sugarsand pH in addition, the presence of oxygen, enzymes, metal catalysts,amino acids, oxidizing and reducing inorganic (Cheel, Theoduloz,Rodríguez, Caligari, & Schmeda-Hirschmann, 2007). 7. Physicochemical and nutritional composition of the fruit AccordingtostudiesbyMarín(2009),thefreshfruitof  P.peruvianaL . presents values of bulk density, 1.038±0.0054 g/mL and wateractivity of 0.988±0.002. The fruit of   P. peruviana  L. with a level of ripeness 4 (according to colour speci 󿬁 cations of the ColombianTechnical Standard NTC 4580 (Instituto Colombiano de NormasTécnicas y Certi 󿬁 cación (ICONTEC), 1999) shows physicochemicalcharacteristics with a pH of 3.7, between 13 to 15 °Brix and aciditywith a percentage between 1.6 and 2.0. As the fruit ripens °Brix andpH decrease, while the percentage of acidity increases (pH: 3.5/°Brix:9 to 13/%Acidity: 2.0 – 2.1) (Osorio & Roldan, 2003; Salazar, Jones,Chaves, & Cooman, 2008). Recent studies have reported physico-chemical parameters of fresh fruit of   P. peruviana  L. (See Table 4).Thebene 󿬁 tsassociatedofthefruitof  P.peruviana L.,aremainlydueto their nutritional composition (see Table 5) because, besides havinggood nutritional characteristics contains biologically active compo-nentsthatprovidehealthbene 󿬁 tsandreduceriskforcertaindiseases.Amongitsmajorcomponentsareitshighamountsofpolyunsaturatedfatty acids, vitamins A, B and C and phytosterols, as well as thepresence of essential minerals, vitamins such as E and K1, with-anolides and physalins, which together would give them medicinalproperties described above. 7.1. Proteins and carbohydrates Proteins are molecules composed of amino acids necessary forgrowthandrepairof bodytissues,theirimportanceliesmainlyin thatthey are an essential constituent of cells and how they may needreplaced over time, it is essential to protein intake. To determine theprotein quality of food is necessary to know the total protein content,what kinds of amino acids has and how many of them are essential(Latham, 2002a).El Sheikha, Zaki, Bakr, El Habashy, and Montet (2010) studied theprotein content of the juice of the fruit of   Physalis pubescens  L.,showing a 31.8% of essential amino acids, mainly leucine, lysine andisoleucine. However, there are no similar studies for the juice of thefruit  P. peruviana  L.. Rodríguez et al. (2007) indicated that the fruit of  P. peruviana  L. has good protein content, there is no detailed record of the amino acids that would bring how many of these would beessential and therefore the protein quality of the fruit, or the bene 󿬁 tsof a healthy consumption of protein from the fruit of   P. peruviana  L could not be determined.As pointed out by Latham (2002a), carbohydrates are the mainenergy source for Asians, Africans and Latin American people.Carbohydratesarefoundinthehumandietmainlyasstarchandvarioussugars, the latter can be divided into three groups according to theircomplexity: monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides.Novoa,Bojacá,Galvis,andFischer(2006)evaluatedthreesugarsinthe fruit of   P. peruviana  L. being sucrose (disaccharide) the mostabundant sugar after glucose (monosaccharide) and  󿬁 nally fructose(monosaccharide) with limited presence in the fruit. They alsonoticed that the glucose content in the fruit of   P. peruviana  L. is verysimilar to other Solanaceae fruits, with a value close to 0.5%. 7.2. Lipids According to studies by Ramadan and Morsel (2003) the fruit of   P. peruviana  L. containing 2% oil, of which 1.8% is extracted from theseeds and 0.2% owned by the pulp and fruit skin. The oils extractedfromfruits of   P. peruviana L. consistof 15fatty acids,amongwhicharelinoleic acid, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids, which constitute 95% of total fatty acids. Linoleic acid is the dominant fatty acid followed byoleic acid, where the ratio of linoleic and oleic acid in pulp and skin is2:1, and 5:1 seed. It is well known that dietary lipids rich in linoleicacid prevent cardiovascular disorders such as coronary heart disease,atherosclerosis and hypertension. Linoleic acid derivatives serve asstructural components of the plasma membrane as precursors andmetabolic regulators of some components.Therearealsosigni 󿬁 cantamountsofsaturatedfattyacidsofnormalchain. Palmitic acid (9%) and stearic acid (~2.5%) are saturated fattyacids mainly found in oils extracted from the fruit of   P. peruviana  L.(Ramadan & Morsel, 2003). As Ramadan reported, the oil extracted from skin and pulp of the fruit of   P. peruviana  L. could contains trienssuch as  γ -linolenic acid (GAL),  α -linolenic and acid Dihomo  γ -linolenic acids (DHGLA) being a good source of this type of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Linolenic acid, being as healthyas the linoleic acid, is considered an essential fatty acid (EFA), sincetheyarenecessaryforgoodhealth.EFAsareimportantinthesynthesisof many cellular structures and several biologically importantcompounds (Latham, 2002a). Moreover, polyunsaturated fatty acidsare essential for the human body, performing many functions such asmaintenance of cell membranes and production of prostaglandins(regulatorsofmanybodyprocesses,includingin 󿬂 ammationandbloodclotting). Fats are also needed in the diet as input for fat-solublevitamins in foods (A, D, E and K) and can be absorbed to regulate  Table 2 Optical characterization of the fresh fruit of   Physalis peruviana  L.Parameter Restrepo (2008) Botero (2008)L* 71.37±1.10 70.31±0.39a* 15.20±0.48 14.31±1.28b* 61.76±1.34 60.84±3.10C* 63.61±1.40 62.50±3.26h* 76.20±0.26 76.77±0.57  Table 3 Antioxidant capacity of the fruit of   Physalis peruviana  L.Parameter Antioxidant activityRestrepo (2008) Botero (2008)DPPH ( μ  moltrolox/100 g sample) 210.82±9.45 192.51±30.13Total phenol content(mg galic acid/100 g sample)40.45±0.93 39.15±5.43FRAP (mg ascorbic acid/100 g sample) 56.53±1.38 54.98±7.14  Table 4 Physicochemical parameters for fresh fruit of   Physalis peruviana  L.PhysicochemicalparameterContentMarín (2009) Restrepo (2008) Botero (2008)ºBrix 14.30±0.80 13.80±0.32 13.73±0.49pH 3.39±0.06 3.39±0.06 3.67±0.12Acidity a (%) 2.05±0.15 2.10±0.26 1.90±0.26a w  0.988±0.002 0.985±0.002 0.989±0.030 a Expressed as % citric acid.1736  L.A. Puente et al. / Food Research International 44 (2011) 1733 – 1740  cholesterol metabolism (Pinazo-Durán, Zanón-Moreno, & Vinuesa-Silva, 2008).The fatty acid composition and high amounts of polyunsaturatedfatty acids found in oils extracted from  P. peruviana  L. make this fruitideal for nutrition (Ramadan et al., 2003) (see Table 6). AccordingtotheresultsobtainedbyRamadanetal.(2003),theoilsextracted from the fruit of   P. peruviana  L. also contain nine species of triacylglycerols (TAG) molecules,but three species, C54: 3, C52: 2 andC54: 6, represent at least 91% of the total. 7.3. Phytosterols The scienti 󿬁 c and medical literature describes phytosterols assuppliers of a wide variety of physiological effects. They attributedanti-in 󿬂 ammatory, antitumor, antibacterial and antifungal. However,the effect best characterized and scienti 󿬁 cally proven, is thehypocholesterolemic effect, both total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol(Valenzuela & Ronco, 2004).Phytosterols are of great interest because of its antioxidantcapacity and impact on health (Ramadan et al., 2003). The oilextractedfrom theskin andpulp of thefruit of   P. peruviana L.has highlevels of plant sterols (see Table 7).According to Valenzuela and Ronco (2004) previous work hasshown that consumption of margarine enriched with  α -sitosterol,campesterol and stigmasterol administered to moderately hypercho-lesterolemic individuals (220 – 240 mg/dL cholesterol), produces areduction of circulating cholesterol around 10% on average and 8% inLDL cholesterol without affecting HDL-cholesterol and triglyceridelevels. As shown in Table 7, campesterol is the most abundant phytosterol in the oils from  P. peruviana  L. ,  moreover contains  β -sitosterol and stigmasterol as the presence of these sterols in the fruitof   P. peruviana  L. could be responsible for the fruit's ability to reducecholesterol levels. 7.4. Minerals Minerals have many functions in the human body. Some mineralelements are needed in very small amounts in human diets, but arevital for metabolic purposes, they are called essential trace elements(Latham, 2002b). The nutritional elements are essential or requiredfor the normal functioning of the body and are classi 󿬁 ed according totheir relative amounts or requirements: Magnesium (Mg), Calcium(Ca),Potassium (K),Sodium(Na)andPhosphorus(P)areclassi 󿬁 edasmacronutrients, while the Iron (Fe) and Zinc (Zn), for example, areconsidered as micronutrients (Szefer & Nriagu, 2007).Thepresenceofmacroandmicronutrientsinfoodsisimportantforthe development and maintenance of vital body functions, as they areinvolved in all aspects of growth, health and reproduction, and alsoparticipate in the formation of cells, tissues and organs (Szefer &Nriagu, 2007). Fruits and vegetables are valuable sources of minerals.Diets high in fruits and vegetables are associated with decreased riskfor illnesses like diabetes and cancer, as its consumption should bewidely promoted (Leterme, Buldgen, Estrada, & Londoño, 2006). The fruit of   P. peruviana  L. contains Phosphorus, Iron, PotassiumandZinc(Rodríguezetal.,2007). Inhumans,PhosphorusandCalciumhave a role as major components of the skeleton. They have alsoimportant metabolic functions related to muscle function, hormonaland nerve stimulation (Latham, 2002b), the fruit of   P. peruviana  L. hasan exceptionally high Phosphorus content for a fruit, but Calciumlevels are low (National Research Council (NRC), 1989).Iron is found in foods of plant and animal origin. The mainbiological function of Iron is the transport of oxygen to the body,consequently the lack of this mineral in the diet leads to anaemia.Repo de Carrasco and Zelada (2008) reported an Iron content in thefruit of   P. peruviana  L. close to 1.2 mg.According to Mayorga, Knapp, Winterhalter, and Duque (2001) thefruit of   P. peruviana  L. has been used as a source of minerals, especiallyIron and Potassium. Potassium, like Sodium, plays an important role inthe physiological functions of animals and is abundantly distributed inthehumandiet(Szeferetal.,2007).Musinguzi,Kikafunda,andKiremire(2007) compared the mineral content between  P. peruviana  L. and Physalisminima L. 󿬁 ndingthat P.peruviana L.ishighlyrichinPotassium,with a value close to 210 mg, whereas,  Physalis minima  L., has only2.43 mg.According to Wu et al. (2005) Zinc is a mineral that acts as a non-enzymatic antioxidant, so that its consumption helps preventoxidative damage of the cell. Authors such as Repo de Carrasco andZelada (2008) indicate the presence of this micronutrient in smalldoses in the fruit  of P. peruviana  L., but would be in small doses; thismineral would contribute to the antioxidant activity of fruit.  Table 5 Average nutritional facts of   Physalis peruviana  L.Nutritional content Content (each 100 g fruit)National ResearchCouncil (NRC) (1989)Fischer et al. (2000) CCI (2001) Osorio and Roldan (2003) Repo de Carrasco andZelada (2008)Energy (cal) 73.0 49.0 54.0 49.0 76.8Water (g) 78.9 85.5 76.9 85.9 79.8Protein (g) 0.3 1.5 1.1 1.5 1.9Fat (g) 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.0Carbohydrates (g) 19.6 11.0 13.1 11.0 17.3Fiber (g) 4.9 0.4 4.8 0.4 3.6Ash (g) 1.0 0.7 0.7 0.7 1.0  Table 6 Fatty acids composition in oil extracted from  Physalis peruviana  L. fruit.Component (%) Seed oil Pulp and skin oilSaturated fatty acids 11.30 16.10Monoens total 12.20 27.70Diens total 76.10 44.40Triens total 0.33 11.70Source: Radamán et al., 2003.  Table 7 Phytosterol composition of oils extracted from the fruit of   Physalis peruviana  L.Phytosterols (g per kg of total lipids) Seed oil Pulp and skin oilCampesterol 6.48 11.50 β -sitosterol 5.71 4.99 Δ 5-avenasterol 4.57 11.80Lanosterol 2.27 7.44Stigmasterol 1.32 6.17 Δ 7-avenasterol 1.11 2.68Ergosterol 1.04 8.62Total esteroles 22.50 53.20Source: Ramadán et al., 2003.1737 L.A. Puente et al. / Food Research International 44 (2011) 1733 – 1740
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