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Oriental Leaf Worm

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Oriental Leaf Worm journal
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  Oriental leafworm Spodoptera litura Michigan State University’s invasive species factsheets Prepared by T. Noma, M. Colunga-Garcia, M. Brewer, J. Landis, and A. Gooch as a part of Michigan State University IPM Program and M. Philip of Michigan Department of Agriculture. The Oriental leafworm is a highly polyphagous defoliator on many cultivated plants. Its accidental introduction into Michigan may be a concern in particular to vegetable, fruit and ornamental plant nurseries and producers.Michigan risk maps for exotic plant pests. Other common names cluster caterpillar, common cutworm, cotton cutworm, cotton leafworm, rice cutworm, taro caterpillar, tobacco budworm, tobacco caterpillar, tobacco cutworm, tropical armyworm Systematic position Insecta > Lepidoptera > Noctuidae > Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) Global distribution Widely distributed in Asia and Oceania. Asia : Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, India, Iran, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Oceania : Australia, Guam, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Micronesia, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, other Pacic islands. United States : Hawaii. Quarantine status Spodoptera  species including the Oriental leafworm have been intercepted at U.S. ports 1,759 times between 1985 and 2003 (Vennette 2003). The moth was detected from a Florida nursery facility in 2007 and regulatory measures were placed immediately (UF/IFAS Pest Alert 2007). This insect is listed as an exotic organism of high invasive risk to the United States (USDA-APHIS 2008). Plant hosts  A wide host range over 120 plant species are known including many vegetable, fruit and ornamental crops. Some examples are: alfalfa, alpinia, amaranth, apples, asparagus, beets, broccoli, cabbage, carrots, chrysanthemum, corn, cruciferous crops, dry beans, eggplants, fuchsia, geranium, gladiolus, grapes, hibiscus, leek, lettuce, mint, orchid, pink, potatoes, radish, roses and sunowers. Biology  A female moth lays masses of eggs on the underside of young leaves. After egg hatch, caterpillars feed on leaves. They are rst gregarious and later solitary. They also may feed on stems, buds, owers and fruits. Pupation occurs in soil several centimeters deep without a cocoon. A life cycle completes on average of 25 days. Identification Adult  : 15-20 mm long and a wingspan of 30-38 mm; forewings gray-brown with white oblique bands; hind wings pale with brown margins. Larva  : Body up to 45 mm long and hairless; larval color varies from pale green to dark green to brown as they develop; mature larvae have three yellow longitudinal lines, one on the top and one on each side; a row of black dots runs on each side and two parallel rows  Adult. (Photo: M. Shepard, Gerald R.Carner, and P.A.C Ooi, Insects and their Natural Enemies Associated with Vegetables and Soybean in Southeast Asia, Bugwood.org) Adult. (Photo: Natasha Wright, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Bugwood.org)  Oriental leafworm 2 February 2010. of black triangles run on the top side. Eggs  : Whitish-yellow egg mass (4-7 mm in diameter) covered with hair scales from mother.Note: The Oriental leafworm can be easily confused with another exotic Spodoptera  species of concern, Egyptian cottonworm, Spodoptera littoralis , and other Spodoptera  species present in the United States. Signs of infestation Presence of an egg mass (4-7 mm in diameter) covered  with hair scales on the underside of young leaves. Larvae on leaves, stems, buds, owers and fruits.  Leaves with holes or skeletonized leaves.  Management notes Survey and regulatory procedure guidelines for Spodoptera have been developed (Elise 2004), and sex pheromones of the oriental leafworm have been identied Economic significance to Michigan The moth is regarded as a major economic pest in its native range. Because of its wide plant host range, the Oriental leafworm, if introduced into Michigan, can potentially disrupt production and marketing of many agricultural and ornamental crops. Venette et al. (2003) have forecasted the moth can establish in much of the continental United States including Michigan based on climatic suitability and wide host range. There are already economically important Spodoptera  species (armyworms) present in the state and additional invasion could further complicate Spodoptera  management. Likely pathways of entry in Michigan Imports of live plants from Asia and Oceania. ***If you nd something suspicious on a susceptible host plant, please contact MSU Diagnostic Services (517- 355-4536), your county extension ofce, or the Michigan Department of Agriculture (1-800-292-3939).*** Larva. (Photo: K. Kiritani, , Bugwood.org)Egg mass covered with hairy scales (Photo: M. Shepard, G. R.Carner, and P.A.C Ooi, Insects and their Natural Enemies  Associated with Vegetables and Soybean in Southeast Asia, Bugwood.org) MSU is an afrmative-action, equal-opportunity employer. Michigan State University Extension programs and materials are open to all without regard to race, color, national srcin, gender, gender identity, religion, age, height, weight, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, marital status, family status or veteran status. Issued in furtherance of MSU Extension work, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Thomas G. Coon, Director, MSU Extension, East Lansing,MI 48824. This information is for educational purposes only. Reference to commercial products or trade names does not imply endorsement by MSU Extension or bias against those not mentioned. References CABI/EPPO. 1990. Data sheets on quarantines pests: Spodoptera littoralis  and Spodoptera litura. CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. ( http://www.eppo.org/QUARANTINE/insects/Spodoptera_litura/PRODLI_ds.pdf  )Ellis, S. E. 2004. New Pest Response Guidelines: Spodoptera. USDA/APHIS/PPQ/PDMP. ( http://www.aphis.usda.gov/import_export/plants/manuals/emergency/downloads/nprg_spodoptera.pdf  )Espinosa, A. and C. Hodges. 2009. Spodoptera litura . ( http://wiki.bugwood.org/Spodoptera_litura )UF/IFAS Pest Alert. 2007. 10/06/07—adult male Spodoptera litura discovered in Florida. University of Florida IFAS Extension. (http:// entomology.ifas.u.edu/pestalert/Spodoptera_litura.htm ) USDA-APHIS. 2008. Pests of national concern for scal year 2009. ( http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/pest_detection/downloads/survey/survey-2009/Appendix-G.pdf  )Venette, R. C., Davis, E. E., Zaspel, J., Heisler, Holly, and Larson, M. 2003. Mini risk assessment: rice cutworm, Spodoptera litura Fabricius [Lepidoptera: Noctuidae]. ( http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/pest_detection/downloads/pra/sliturapra.pdf  )Witzgall, P., T. Lindblom, M. Bengtsson, M. Tóth. 2004. The Pherolist. (http://www-pherolist.slu.se/pherolist.php)
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