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Neilomandros: A Contribution to the History of Greek Personal Names

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Neilomandros: A Contribution to the History of Greek Personal Names
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  PETER THONEMANN Neilomandros A contribution to the history of Greek personal names* The presence of some thirty-four Lakonian black-figure sherds among the pottery excavated at the site ofNaukratis in the Nile delta is an archaeological peculiaritywhich has never been convincingly explained. The fact that the vases almost all date to the second quarter ofthe sixth century BC may suggest that a single cargo n'as involved. How and why the vases reached Naukratis, remains a mystery; di- rect Spartan involvement in Naukratis may surely be ruled out, and the mediationof Kyrene is at best unproven. Their ultimate function, at least, is not in doubt- Three ofthe thirty-four pieces carry dedicatory graffiti to Aphrodite in the Ionian alphabet and script. It has thus reasonably been inferred that this single shiPment ofLakonian ware found its primary employment as Ionian votives to Aphrodite.iThe personal name of one of the three dedicators is lost entirely, and of a second, only a very few letters are preserved: [-- A<ppo6]it1r OOt --lMM[ ] GARDNER ambitiously restored this as [6 6eivc dv60qzev Agpo0]iqt 6@[rtr6]pF[ovo<], recently modified by MoLLER to [Aqpo6]irqL 6 @[rtr<t]pp[ovJ.'?This latter restoration, at least, cannot be right, since dedicators' names do not takethe definite article. Nor is GerolrsR's restoration by any means certain. The struc- ture he proposes (<X dedicated to Aphrodite, the son of Y)) is rather uncommon* The following special abbreviations are used thrcughout: BECHTEL, HP = F. BECHTEL, Die histodschen PersoDennamen des Griechischen bis zur Kaiserzeit, 1917. BECHTEL,KoS = F. BecnrBr, Kleine onomastische Studien. Ar.lfsatze zur gdechischen Eigennamen-forschung, 1981. - GPN = S. HoRNBLowER - E. MArrHEws (eds.), Greek Personal Names: Their Value as Evidence,2000. LETRoNNE, M6moire = J.-A. LETRoNNE, Mdmoire sur l'utilit6 qu on peut retirer de l'6tude des noms propres grecs, Pourl'histoire et l'arch6ologie,M6moires de f institut national de lrance, Acaddmie des inscriPtions et belleslettres, 19/1, 1851,1 139.- MAssoN,OGS = O. MAssoN, Onomastica Graeca Selecta, I-III, 1990-2000 - Srrrrc, GNT = E. SITTIG, De Graecotum nominibus theophoris, l9Il. I am indebtedto R. CATLING, E. MATTHEws, A. MoRpuRGo DAvlEs and R. PARKER for commetlt and criticism. Responsibility for errors and infelicities is mine alone. I M.S. VENIT, Laconian Black Figure in Egypt, AJA 89, 1985, 391 398; A MoLLER, Naukatis. Trade in Atciaic Grcece,2000, 124-727. 2 E.A. GARDNER, Naukratis II, 1888, 64 no. 767, followed by SB 2542; A. BERNAND, Le delta dg)?tien d'apias les textes grecs, 1970, I 3, 683 no. 418; cl MoLLER (above, n. l) 179. Illustr., C. M. STIBBE, Lakonische Vasenmaler des 6. lh. v Chr., 1972,Il Taf. 43,7.  12 Peter Thonemann among the Naukratis dedications.3 What is, however, very frequent, is the addi- tion of an ethnic, in the form <X dedicated to Aphrodit€, the Chian,; it seems probable that the order ofthe two fragments shouldbe reversed, giving [ - - Jppl - - Arppo6]irqt 6 <DIoNoLeuq].4 Nothing compels us to restore the name ofthe dedi- cator as [@ 6]pp[tov], a name ofvery uncertain currency before the ffrst century BC, and otherwise unknown to Ionia. Personal names with a double-zu are not especially common; one might consider [\Pc]pp[qrtloq], a name known to havebeen held by an Ionian mercenary in Egypt in the late sixth century.5 The third graffito is better preserved. G,q.xnNsn read the text as Agpo6irr.lNey6pov6poq Idv60r1rcv] remarking that the name has (a Graeco-Eglptian look'; others interpreted the name as Pamphylian.6 JEFFERy pointed out that the correctreading was Nel6pov6poq = NerL6Fav6Poq: an extraordinary and unparalleled name.7 Both elements, however, can readilybe paralleled amongthe Greeks ofAr- chaic and Early Classical Egypt. For Ne o- we may compare the ear\ fifth-cen- tury dedicatory inscription of Plthermos son of Neilon, perhaps a native of Samos, on a bronze statuette oflsis and Horus: lluOepg6q ;re 6 Ndtrcovoq 6),6octo r1q "Eotoq ciycl,pc;s for -pcv6poq, we may compare a roughly contemporary painted inscription on Chiot-style ware, carrying the dedication of a certain 'Epp6pov6poq- perhaps avase-painter himself, since he seems to have written his 3 The only unambiguous example appears to be Odvlg pre dv60qre trirn6ltrov[r trotMLI),qoitor 6ltrrrugo (SGDI 5759j BERNAND I 3, 661 no. 179); compare the structure <X dedicated me, the son ofY, to Aphrodite): 'Epprog<ivlq ovio[qrev] d Nouorrf[],ouql (Benr- AND I 3,685 no. 435); [A]crpL[ro]g p'drdl0ll'4e Oppro[0]6FILoq] tl<ppo6i[trl] (BERNAND I 3, 688 no.468). a Compare [ -JXi6eo [cv60r1xev tnr A]9po6i-rrl 6 Trllroq] (BERNAND I 3, 684 no.430); [- - xoo]oeNe tcr Agpo6ircL 6 MrrtLtrevrrioq (BERNAND I 3, 685 no. 439); cf. BERNAND I 3, 67 6 tro. 352t 686 no. 440- 44lt 687 ^o. 455, perhaps 68 8 no. 462. Fo r Phokaians at Naukratis, BERNAND I 3, 675 no.345;709 no.682 (?); Hdt.2.178. 5 For the instructive history ofthe name OLl.dppcov, F. DUNAND, Les noms th6ophores en ammon, CE 38, 1963, 134-146; W. SwhtNeN, Philammon, chantre ldgendaire, et les noms grdco-€gyptiennes en -ammdn, in: Antidorum W. Peremans... oblatum, 1968, 237-262. A Grcekmercenary by the name of Ya[FirLXoq is attested in MErccs - LEwrs, GHI 7 a2 (early sixth century), in Do an dialect but Ionian script. Alternatively, one couldcontemplate [Yd]trg[rq], attested in a funerary inscription from Abdera vrhich appears, from the lettering, to date to the fffth century BC: L Thr. Aeg. 38.6 Genor,{aR (above, n.2) II 64 no. 766; followed by C.R. RoEBUCK, CPh 45, 1950,247 n. 62 (,Greco-Egyptianr; SB 2541. A Pamphylian srcin for the name was proposed by P KRETSCHMER, Zum pamphylischen Dialekt, KZ 33, 1895, 265, followed by Srrrrc, GNT 46; a doubly fallacious argument, as shown byMAssoN ap. CL. BRrxHE, Le dialecte grec de Pamphylie, 1976,201 n. 3.7 L. JEFFERY, ABSA 51, 1956, 6l n. 8 (= SEG 18, 651); BERNAND, I3 683 no. 417; STTBBE (above, n. 2) I, 208; MoLLER (above, n. t) 178. 3 SGDI 5771; JETFERY, LSAG 355 no. 50. The statuette is illustrarcd, hP3gypt29,1977, s9 Pl. 3.  Neilomandros 13 o\rn inscription - resident at Naukratis in the first halfofthe sixth century BC, and most probably a native of Chios.e ,Il t'aut faire non seulement I'histoire des noms, mais l'histoire par les noms.rr0 There can be few more instructive Greek onomastic families than the group of personal names in Mcv6po- and provdpoq, preserving, rlike the light of a dead star', the memory of a deceased god, the indigenous Anatolian deity Mcrv6poq, recalled from oblivion by J.-A. Lprrounr in his famous essay lsur l'utilit6 qu'onpeut retirer de l'6tude des noms propres grecsr.rr The interest of this group of names lvas again highlighted by HTLLER a little over a century ago, in criticisingP -\lrrrr's reckless attempt to establish the ethnic srcins of several members of a Ptolemaic garrison on Thera (IG XII 3, 325): ,Die Verteilung der Soldner auf die griechischen Stddte auf Grund ihrer Namen ist zum Teil sehr gewagt und ::r'icher.. . Es ist sehr verdienstvoll, dass MEyER iiberhaupt diese Fragen aufge-'.ter:ren und ihre Losung versucht hat; aber es fehlt noch die Voraussetzung dazu, ::s sriechische Namenbuch der Zukunft, das uns die Geschichte und Verbreitung je: einzelnen Namengruppen und zur Namenbildung verwendeten Stdmme in :' irklich iibersichtlicher Form, mit erschcipfenden oder wenigstens sachgemiiss :usgerrihlten Nachweisen lehrt. Solche Artikel wie @egLot-, @eproro-, -0epuq ocier Mov6po- in BECHTELs Personennamen ... zeigen, was hier noch fiir eineseivaltige Arbeit zu leisten ist.)''z Specific historical essays ofthe kind proposed by ; See R. Nl. CooK A. G. WooDHEAD, Painted Inscriptions on Chiot pottery, ABSA 47,1951, 159-170, esp. 161 n. 15. The pottery should be classified as ,Chiot-style, rather thanChiot,, since it appears to have been produced at Naukratis: J. Boerou,rN, Archaic Chian :otterv at Naukratis, in: id. C. E. VApHopouLou-RrcHARDsoN (eds.), Chios: A Confer- er.e at the Homereion in Chios, 1986,251 258; MoLLET (above, n. l) 136 140. Ifpotter:nd dedicator are identical (and in this particulai case the word a'ypa[V€] on one of theHermomandros fragments seems decisive), then Hermomandros ought to be ofChiot ori gin: the specific prosopographical link suggested by R. WAcHTER, Non-Attic Greek Vase Ins.riptions, 2001, 219 n. 680, is, however, very tenuous. :i L. RoBERr, Actes du VIl" congrCs international d'dpigraphie grecque et latine, 1979, i{. I : Iirst published as Observations philologiques et archdologiques sur l'dtude des nomspropres grecs, Annales de I'Institut Archdologique = Annali dell'Instituto Archeologico 17, tS+5, 25I 346; republished, with extensive addenda, under the title Mdmoire sur l'utilit€ qu on peut retirer de i'6tude des noms propres grecs, pour I'histoire et I'arch6ologie, in the \l;moires de l'institut national de France, Acaddmie des inscriptions et belleslettres 19/1, lSil, I I39 (the version cited here). I have not seen the reprint ofthis latter version in his Oeu|res choisies IIL2, 1885, l-126. The brilliant simile quoted in the text comes from i.. Prnren, Theophoric Names and the History of Greek Religion, in GPN 64. The only :ecent study known to me of this onomastic group is C. L. GAcLrANo, A proposito di iv . ,r16pg in POry.984, Aegyptus 80,2000,99 tt5, which represents, to put it kindly, a step ,.acilrards from Lrrnorxe. :: F HILLER voN GAERTRTNGEN, Die Gdtterkulte aus Thera, Klio 1, 1901 1902,219 :r- 6.  14 Peter Thoflemann Hrr,r,rn, which would attempt to trace the expansion and decline of particular groups of names and their compounded elements, based on close analysis both of the form and meaning of individual names and of their geographical and chro- nological distribution, for the most part remain to be written; the documentary record, meanwhile, continues to grow at an alarming rate. But in recent years the composition of such essays has been hugely facilitated by the vast resources of P M. FRASER and E. MATTHEWS' ongoing Ledcon of Greek Personal Names, an unqualified triumph ofselfless and rigorous scholarship. I propose here to under- take one such study, that ofpersonal names in Mc.v6po- and -pcv6poq, as a small contribution to the renaissance in Greek onomastic studies which the Lexicon has helped to promote. A large part of LrrrouNE's pioneering essay (39 86) was dedicated to com-pound narnes with the terminations -6<opoq and -66pc. LErnorrr divided these names into two classes. First, those whose first element is the name of a deity (A166@poq), a divine epiklesis (IIu066opoq), the name ofa hero (Aiovr66copoq), mountain, or river (Kqgto66ropo5); and second, those which begin with other more or less common word-forms, as Eii6trrpoq, Avti6opog.13 Names of the first class, by far the more numerous, signi$r <que l'individu qui les portait 6tait con-siddrd comme ayant dtd donnd A ses parents par l'interyention de telle ou telle divinitd, et, en consdquence, qu'il se trouvait placd sous sa protection sp€ciale)(40). Lrrnouur proceeded, spectacularly, to applythis principle to the anthropo,nym Av6pcv66topoq, the name of a prominent Sicilian in Polybius 7.2.5, which he emended to A6pcv66opog so as to derive from the indigenous Sicel deity Adranos.ta He then pointed out the interest of the name Mcv6p66opoq, at the time only attested in Arrian, Anab. 6.23.2 (and hence, by a simple emendation, inIndica 18), as the father of one Thoas of Magnesia, an officer of Alexander the Great.rs LstnoNr,rp rightly argued that if one were to take the element Mqvdpo- as deriving from prcv6po, <stable, enclosure>, the name Movdp68copoq would be totally inexplicable. He thereby argued for the existence of an otherwise un-attested deity Mandros or Mandra, from whom the name was derived, ,gift of Mandrosr. Exhaustive analysis follows ofthe handful of other names in Mqvdpo- and -pra.vdpog then known: Mcv6poxl,4q and K),e6pro.v6pog, Mav6poydvlq, Mcrv6poxparqe, Mov6p6poutroq, the mythological Mcrv6p6Luroq, Mov0prirvcr{ and Avc{ipro.v6pog, Llu06pavdpog, @e6pc.v6poq and the simple Mqv6pov; he correctly inferred the existence ofthe personal name Mq.v6po.y6pcrg (now directly r3 See further D. KNoEeFLER, Oropodoros: Anthroponomy, Geography, History, in GPN 8+86. ra See, most recently, l. B. CURBERA, Onomastics and river-gods in Sicily, Philologus 142, 1,998,57f. rs H. BERVE, Das Alexanderreich auf prosopographischer Grundlage, 1926, II l8l no.376.  Neilomartdros 15 .::..:ed iiom the homon,vmous plant 16 For most of these names - with some ,:.:::i;ant e\ceptions, notably Avo(i;rovOpog and l1u06pcv0poq' discussed in ;J:::; belor,'- he u'as able to cite indisputabie theophoric parallels: A01vdNL1{' -...j€\l-(, 'Epgoxpotqq, and so forth. Obseruing further that' with very few ex- ...::or'r:, thi. group of nanes was confined to western Asia Minor' and that al- --.,.t all the datable instafces were anterior to the conquests of Alexander' Lr ,i -r\\EconcludedthatMov6poq/MctvdpswasanindigenouswestAnatolial ;.;iir'- deceased or absorbed into another cult at an early date' leaving behind this .:,:il grouP oftheophoric names as the only trace ofhis passingrT TnJarggment is brilliant and seductive. It has convinced the overwhelming ma- '--::t.'. of iis readers, and riShtly so. But it ought not to be accePted without question' -.: lcrrsr $'as able to cite some twentybearers ofnames derived from this stem; we 1- .,,. so\r oinore than a hundred and eighty The Picture which he drew requires :: :'.::;ation not only in details' but also, as I shall argue, in certain fundamentals' i.:.rre turning to a more detailed examination of the onomastic evidence' '.. . : ;qht to notJ a single reported sighting of the elusive god Mandros' alive and -.:, rali a millennium after the likely date of death as determined by T'rrrorun -- i9l l, i. Krrr read and restored a difficult inscriPtion (now lost) recording the :,quisition oflanded property by a cult association at Aeolian Kyme in the early -:rperial period so a.1o ,"f"t to a 'sanctuary before tir'e city of Mandros Kai6nt' .oii rpo [no]treoq ispo0 Kqiorroq MIqv]6pIo]u 18 Some scepticism is appropriate Ire suppose<l cult epiklesls ,Noitov' (rthe kindler'? rwho brings warmth)?) is not in :: self eipecially plausible, and lacks parallels We shall see later on that some ofthe ,.no-urti.-nt.tiullsflatlyincompatiblewitha'firegodrMandros'Moreover'if ::'r isolated cult of the ancient god hacl indeed survived into the first or second ' Some individual attestations ofthese varioLts Dames have since been discredited' but ,.. onir; itt,-r,o.y it". in LETRoNNE's list is *M.rv6p67roUnoq, created by ill advised emen- :::ion of L Mylasa 572. ln the second, 1851 version of the memoir-(P48) he added i".if"'0p", "ita " .econd instance of K).e6gcv6poq, expressing some doubts as to their .ele. "nce-'Foi the onomastic confirmation of LETRoNNE's brilliant conjecture concernjng , -" .tt-olog-', of p,ov6po16pcg' see E FRAEN(EL' Zur griechischen und baltoslavischen Grammatik und Wortkunde, ini Satura Berolinensis, 1924, 23-24' . ln int"a"rting aonsequence of this argument was thai LETRoNN E was.quite Prepared_. i:nv the relevance ofonomastic materiJ wrth the element -Fov6p whrch dated to later ::::.-,is. So in his Recueil des inscriPtions de l'Egypte II p 477 no 534' commenting on a -.,"--i"riq* "" ft"m Memphis wlich appeareJ io feature the personal name Mov6poq' .-: ;t"ted ihat rNldv6pog, nom inconnu, ,," peut gudt", A cette 6poque' venit de celui de :::,enne divinjtd; il doit €tre form6 de p'rv6pa' (similarly LETnoNNE' M€moire' 49 n 5)1,1-.;ern scholars have shown less discriminalion' - L KETL, Mysterieninschrifi aus dcm iiolischen Kyme' JOAI i4' 1911' Bejbl l33-140: ,<tn]":;, ,r'ith commentary and facsimile p 146 L RoBERr was convilced: Eludes 6pi ;::;hrques et phjlologiques, 1938' 214; BE 1958, 85; OMS lll' 1679 Note' ltoovsl'sr' the - . rr. or R PAFKI-R, in UPN {r7 n 55.
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