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Museum lan Antropologi

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Museum lan Antropologi
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  Museum lan Antropologi Dhek jaman orde baru, Soeharto ora tau ngubungke antarane Museum lan ilmu kabudayaan utawa antropologi. Soeharto mung pengen Museum kui ya kudu nduwe hubungan intim karo militer. Sajroning dadi Presiden, Soeharto pengen akeh nggawe museum militer sing ana hubungan karo perjuangane. Jarene kabar yen ana usulan nggawe museum (militer) sing ora ana hubungane karo dhewekke, Soeharto mrengut ! Banjur ogah  –  ogahan nyetujoni, paling kerep ya nolak usulan kui. Eloke, hobby Soeharto nggawe museum militer kuwi kayane diterusake karo anak putune? Tahun 2013 iki anak putune Soeharto mbukak siji Museum Soeharto nang desa Kemusuk, Kulon Progo. Kabare meneh pas pembukaan museume iku akeh mobil ditempel sticker    gambar Soeharto sing ana unine, “piye le enak jamanku tho?”  Dhek jaman orde baru, Soeharto ora tau ngubungke antarane ilmu kabudayan (antropologi) lan museum. Weruhe Soeharto antropologi, mergo wis kalebu ilmu pengetahuan kui mestine ana hubungane karo universitas utawa perguruan tinggi, lan akademi, utamane akadami abri disingkat akabri. Sakjane Soeharto ora dong temenana wektu Ali Moertopo sowan ngendika menawa arep nggawe buku Strategi Kebudayaan karo CSIS. Soeharto takon “Apa bedane karo strategi perang?  Ali Moertopo njawab “ inggih wonten bedane, nanging ugi kathah padane ... balance ”. Soeharto ngunjal napas, ujare meneh “ya wis gawena, pokoke ngganggo strategi perangku! ”.  Tangan Ali Moertopo mbenekake posisi kacamatane banjur dheweke mesem kecut. Saiki sakwise jaman Soeharto, yen para kadang gelem mbukak sujarah gagasan Museum ing tlatah Eropa jaman samangke, mugi saget manggihi bilih museum lan antropologi nate duwe hubungan sing rukun lan akrab. Malah antropologi pengine hubunganipun intim terus, sabab antarane tahun 1840 lan 1890, ilmu kabudayan iku durung diakoni dados science (ilmu). Dadi antropologi durung iso utawi lagi brejuang gawe hubungan karo universitas. Nduwene hubungan ya karo museum (Gonzales 2001, 108). Museum kersa gawe pameran koleksi sing dikumpulake para bapak antropologi, kanggo ngaturi pirsa ingkang sami rawuh babagan kabudayan- kabudayan liyan, sing disinaoni para bapak antropolog iku. Kabudayan liyan kui mesti wae ora kalebu kabudayan kulon. Mbarengi wektu karo sumebare gagasane Charles Darwin ning masyarakat ilmiah eropa, para perintis antropologi iku banjur manfaatake museum lewat pameran ingkang nyengkuyung gagasane wong  –  wong evolusionis. Miturut para perintis itu, menungsa iku ngalami evolusi saka biadab pinuju beradab, lan saben kabudayane menungsa mesti manggihi tahapan evolusi kanthi linier, urut barisan. Para perintis antropologi iku kathah ingkang nduwe anggepan bilih Kabudayan Eropa iku puncak  –  puncake evolusi budaya sing paling dhuwur dewe. Kabudayan liyan lajeng dianggep dureng mlebu puncak evolusi budaya, anan sing mlebu tahapan barbar utawa tahap sakngisoripun.  Nanging, banjur sakwise perintis antropologi sukses gawe hubungan karo universitas, yaiku kira  –  kira meh rampung abad 19 lan wiwite abad 20 tekan kira  –  kira tahun 1960  – an, antropologi banjur ngedohi museum. (Gonzalez 2001, 106 and 108). Kasak baline Museum ugo ngadoh, alasane antropologi jaman kui wis ora nganggo meneh gagasane evolusi, gagasan sing sakdurungi disileh ben antropologi isa ditampa dadi ilmu. Jaman Museum lan Antropologi dohadohan iku prasasat rampunge gagasan menawa antropologi iku mung babagan nyinaoni budaya material thok thil. Lan wiwit sumebar gagasan menawa antropologi mung nyinaoni budaya non material, kadosta kekerabatan (kinship) lan ciri ciri (identity): Obyek wis ora didelok meneh kados tanda  –  tanda budaya (Segalen 2001, 84  –  85). Miturut Boeguet (2001: 178) Museum jaman isih duwe hubungan apik karo antropologi, wigati sing utomo kui condong nang prakawis koleksi, nanging wektu ditinggal antropologi, museum wigatine banjur condong nang prakawis pameran. Dumadakan ing tahun 1989, 1995, lan 2001, kados serial, ICOM (International Council of Museum) nggawe definisi anyar kanggo museum sak donya, munine kaya mangkene: “A museum is a non -profit making, permanent institution in the service of society and its development, and open to the public which acquires, conserves, researches, communicates and exhibits, for purposes of study, education and enjoyment, material evidence of people and their environment (International Council of Museums, from 1989, 1995, 2001).” Sapindah malih ing tahun 2007 ICOM nggawe definisi anyar, munine kaya mangkene: “A museum is a non -profit, permanent institution in the service of society and its development, open to the public, which acquires, conserves, researches, communicates and exhibits the tangible and intangible heritage of humanity and its environment for the purposes of education, study and enjoyment (International Council of Museums, from 2007).” Definisi Museum sakloron iku yen diwaca saklepatan mata kayane pada wae ing antarane tahun 1989 lan 2007, nanging yen diwaca karo udud utawa ngemil dalah dipun teliti kanthi ayeming manah, ana siji sing trawaca beda. ICOM nang definisi Museum 2007, sakwise ukara tangible , banjur nambahi ukara intangible heritage . Kados kados enem tahun kapengker ukara intangible heritage durung kapikiran dening ICOM, buktinipun saget diwaca ning defisini tahun 2001. Dadi tambahan gagasan puniku kaitung anyar. Saiki Museum wis sadar kerjane ora mung nguri  –  uri tangible heritage  nanging uga intangible heritage . Museum nyadari banget kahanan sing mrihatinake amarga katah intangible heritage  ingkang kabacut ilang utawa dipun lalekake. Apa meneh masyarakat asal muasale tangible heritage  (barang, obyek) koleksi museum iku, iya akeh sing wis ora kelingan babagan intangible heritage . Jumbuh karo tanggung jawab iku, museum banjur golek  –  golek upaya, satunggaling upaya puniku nyedhaki antropologi meneh. Banjur piye antropologi? Apa isa cedhak museum meneh? (ana sambungane ...)  
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