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Kisumu County
  Kisumu County   ii Exploring Kenya’s Inequality A PUBLICATION OF KNBS AND SID © 2013 Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) and Society for International Development (SID)ISBN – 978 - 9966 - 029 - 18 - 8With funding from DANIDA through Drivers of Accountability ProgrammeThe publication, however, remains the sole responsibility of the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) and the Society for International Development (SID).  Written by:  Eston Ngugi  Data and tables generation:  Samuel Kipruto Paul Samoei  Maps generation:  George Matheka Kamula  Technical Input and Editing:  Katindi Sivi-Njonjo Jason Lakin Copy Editing:  Ali Nadim Zaidi Leonard Wanyama  Design, Print and Publishing:  Ascent Limited  All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form, or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior express and written permission of the publishers. Any part of this publication may be freely reviewed or quoted provided the source is duly acknowledged. It may not be sold or used for commercial purposes or for profit.Kenya National Bureau of StatisticsP.O. Box 30266-00100 Nairobi, KenyaEmail: Website: www.knbs.or.keSociety for International Development – East AfricaP.O. Box 2404-00100 Nairobi, KenyaEmail: | Website: Published by   iii Pulling Apart or Pooling Together? Table of contents Table of contents iiiForeword iv Acknowledgements vStriking features on inter-county inequalities in Kenya viList of Figures viiiList Annex Tables ix Abbreviations xiIntroduction 2Kisumu County 9   iv Exploring Kenya’s Inequality A PUBLICATION OF KNBS AND SID Foreword Kenya, like all African countries, focused on poverty alleviation at independence, perhaps due to the level of vulnerability of its populations but also as a result of the ‘trickle down’ economic discourses of the time, which assumed that poverty rather than distribution mattered – in other words, that it was only necessary to concentrate on economic growth because, as the country grew richer, this wealth would trickle down to benefit the poorest sections of society. Inequality therefore had a very low profile in political, policy and scholarly discourses. In recent years though, social dimensions such as levels of access to education, clean water and sanitation are important in assessing people’s quality of life. Being deprived of these essential services deepens poverty and reduces people’s well-being. Stark differences in accessing these essential services among different groups make it difficult to reduce poverty even when economies are growing. According to the Economist   (June 1, 2013), a 1% increase in incomes in the most unequal countries produces a mere 0.6 percent reduction in poverty. In the most equal countries, the same 1% growth yields a 4.3% reduction in poverty. Poverty and inequality are thus part of the same problem, and there is a strong case to be made for both economic growth and redistributive policies. From this perspective, Kenya’s quest in vision 2030 to grow by 10% per annum must also ensure that inequality is reduced along the way and all people benefit equitably from development initiatives and resources allocated. Since 2004, the Society for International Development (SID) and Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) have collaborated to spearhead inequality research in Kenya. Through their initial publications such as ‘Pulling Apart: Facts and Figures on Inequality in Kenya,’ which sought to present simple facts about various manifestations of inequality in Kenya, the understanding of Kenyans of the subject was deepened and a national debate on the dynamics, causes and possible responses started. The report ‘ Geographic Dimensions of Well-Being in Kenya: Who and Where are the Poor?’ elevated the poverty and inequality discourse further while the publication ‘ Readings on Inequality in Kenya: Sectoral Dynamics and Perspectives’ presented the causality, dynamics and other technical aspects of inequality.KNBS and SID in this publication go further to present monetary measures of inequality such as expenditure patterns of groups and non-money metric measures of inequality in important livelihood parameters like employment, education, energy, housing, water and sanitation to show the levels of vulnerability and patterns of unequal access to essential social services at the national, county, constituency and ward levels. We envisage that this work will be particularly helpful to county leaders who are tasked with the responsibility of ensuring equitable social and economic development while addressing the needs of marginalized groups and regions. We also hope that it will help in informing public engagement with the devolution process and be instrumental in formulating strategies and actions to overcome exclusion of groups or individuals from the benefits of growth and development in Kenya. It is therefore our great pleasure to present ‘Exploring Kenya’s inequality: Pulling apart or pooling together?’ Ali Hersi Society for International Development (SID) Regional Director    v Pulling Apart or Pooling Together?    Acknowledgements Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) and Society for International Development (SID) are grateful to all the individuals directly involved in the publication of ‘Exploring Kenya’s Inequality: Pulling Apart or Pulling Together?’ books. Special mention goes to Zachary Mwangi (KNBS, Ag. Director General) and  Ali Hersi (SID, Regional Director) for their institutional leadership; Katindi Sivi-Njonjo (SID, Progrmme Director) and Paul Samoei (KNBS) for the effective management of the project; Eston Ngugi; Tabitha Wambui Mwangi; Joshua Musyimi; Samuel Kipruto; George Kamula; Jason Lakin; Ali Zaidi; Leonard Wanyama; and Irene Omari for the different roles played in the completion of these publications.KNBS and SID would like to thank Bernadette Wanjala (KIPPRA), Mwende Mwendwa (KIPPRA), Raphael Munavu (CRA), Moses Sichei (CRA), Calvin Muga (TISA), Chrispine Oduor (IEA), John T. Mukui, Awuor Ponge (IPAR, Kenya), Othieno Nyanjom, Mary Muyonga (SID), Prof. John Oucho (AMADPOC), Ms. Ada Mwangola (Vision 2030 Secretariat), Kilian Nyambu (NCIC), Charles Warria (DAP), Wanjiru Gikonyo (TISA) and Martin Napisa (NTA), for attending the peer review meetings held on 3 rd  October 2012 and Thursday, 28 th  Feb 2013 and for making invaluable comments that went into the initial production and the finalisation of the books. Special mention goes to Arthur Muliro, Wambui Gathathi, Con Omore,  Andiwo Obondoh, Peter Gunja, Calleb Okoyo, Dennis Mutabazi, Leah Thuku, Jackson Kitololo, Yvonne Omwodo and Maureen Bwisa for their institutional support and administrative assistance throughout the project. The support of DANIDA through the Drivers of Accountability Project in Kenya is also gratefully acknowledged. Stefano PratoManaging Director,SID
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