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  CHAPTER 4 : MOLE CONCEPT-3 (Concentration Measurement) 4.0INTRODUCTION4.1UNITS OF CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENT4.2INTERCONVERSION OF UNITS CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 4.1CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 4.1 4.3LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 4.2CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 4.2 4.4UNUSUAL UNITS FOR CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENT4.5HARDNESS OF WATER CONTENTS Page No. (1-22)(23-38)(39-56)(57-80) CHAPTER 2 : MOLE CONCEPT-1 (The Basics) CHAPTER 1 : BASICS ABOUT CHEMISTRY  12 2.0INTRODUCTION2.1ATOMIC MASS UNIT (AMU) AND ATOMIC MASS2.2NATURAL OR PERCENTAGE ABUNDANCE (OF ISOTOPES):2.3AVERAGE ATOMIC MASS CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 2.1CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 2.1 2.4AVOGADRO’S NUMBER AND MOLE2.5THE MOLECULAR MASS CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 2.2CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 2.2 1.0CHEMISTRY : THE SCIENCE OF MATTER1.1WHAT IS SCIENCE?1.2HOW DOES SCIENCE WORK?1.3WHAT IS CHEMISTRY?1.4SUBDIVISIONS OF CHEMISTRY1.5SCOPE OF CHEMISTRY1.6HOW TO STUDY CHEMISTRY1.7CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER1.8UNITS OF MEASUREMENT CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE – 1.1CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE – 1.1 1.9SCIENTIFIC NOTATION CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE – 1.2CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE – 1.2 1.10MEASURED AND EXACT NUMBERS CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE – 1.3CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE – 1.3 1.11SIGNIFICANT FIGURES CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE – 1.4CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE – 1.4CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE – 1.5CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE – 1.5 1.12SI AND METRIC PREFIXES CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE – 1.6CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE – 1.7CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE – 1.7 1.13CONVERSION FACTORS CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE – 1.8CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE – 1.8CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE – 1.9CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE – 1.9 1.14Mass and Energy CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE – 1.10CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE – 1.10 2.6MOLAR MASS2.7MOLES OF ATOMS AND MOLES OF MOLECULES2.8DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE TERM MOLECULAR WEIGHT,FORMULA WEIGHT, AND GRAM ATOMIC WEIGHT CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 2.3CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 2.3 2.9MOLAR VOLUME OF IDEAL GASES AT STP CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 2.4EXERCISE 1EXERCISE 2 CHAPTER 3 : MOLE CONCEPT-2 (Chemical Formulae) 3.1WHAT DOES A MOLECULAR FORMULA TELL? CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 3.1CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 3.1 3.2PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION OF A GIVEN COMPOUND BY MASS CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 3.2CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 3.2 3.3EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULAE3.4METHODS OF ANALYSIS CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 3.3CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 3.3EXERCISE 1EXERCISE 2 3 CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 4.3CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 4.3 4.6EVAPORATION AND CRYSTALLIZATION CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 4.4CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 4.4 4.7VOLUME CHANGE DUE TO MIXING CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 4.5CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 4.5EXERCISE 1EXERCISE 2 4  Page No. (81-112)(113-156)(157-166)(167-178)(179-202)(203-242) CHAPTER 5 : BALANCING REDOX EQUATIONSCHAPTER 6 : MOLE CONCEPT-4 57 5.1BASICS CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 5.1CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 5.1 5.2OXIDATION NUMBER AND OXIDATION STATE CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 5.2CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 5.2 5.3PRINCIPLE OF ATOMIC CONSERVATION5.4BALANCING SIMPLE EQUATIONS (HIT AND TRIAL METHOD) CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 5.3CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 5.3 5.5BALANCING REDOX EQUATIONS: THE METHODOLOGY5.6ION—ELECTRON METHOD5.7SHISHIR’S METHOD CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 5.4CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 5.4EXERCISE 1EXERCISE 2 6.1LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS (LOCM)6.2PRINCIPAL OF ATOMIC CONSERVATION CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 6.1CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 6.1 6.3EQUATION—BASED CALCULATIONS (ELEMENTARY LEVEL, SINGLE EQUATION OR 2) CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 6.2CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 6.2 6.4LIMITING REAGENT AND PERCENTAGE EXCESS CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 6.3CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 6.3 6.5REACTION YIELD 6 CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 6.4CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 6.4CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 6.5CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 6.5CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 6.6CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 6.6CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 6.7CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 6.7CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 6.8CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 6.8EXERCISE 1EXERCISE 2 CHAPTER 7 : CALCULATIONS IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 8 : EQUIVALENT CONCEPT 7.1DETERMINATION OF EMPIRICAL FORMULA OF ORGANICCOMPOUNDS7.2ESTIMATION OF NITROGEN7.3ESTIMATION OF HALOGENS7.4ESTIMATION OF SULPHUR7.5ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHORUS CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 7.1CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 7.1 7.6DETERMINATION OF MOLAR MASS CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 7.2CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 7.2EXERCISE 8.1THE IDEA OF EQUIVALENTS CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 8.1CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 8.1 8.2EQUIVALENT MASS IN ACID BASE REACTIONS CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 8.2CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 8.2 8.3EQUIVALENT MASS IN A REDOX REACTION CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 8.3CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 8.3EXERCISE 1EXERCISE 2 CHAPTER 9 : ADVANCED STOICHIOMETRY-I (Acid Base and Precipitation Titrations) 9.1HOW IS AN ACID—BASE TITRATION PERFORMED?9.2EQUIVALENTS OF ACIDS AND BASES : A RECAP9.3USING THE EQUIVALENT METHOD CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 9.1CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 9.1 9.4BACK TITRATION CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 9.2 9.5SPECIAL METHODS IN ACID—BASE TITRATIONS9.6DOUBLE TITRATIONS (THEORY) CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 9.3EXERCISE 1EXERCISE 2 CHAPTER 10 : ADVANCED STOICHIOMETRY-II (Redox Titrations) CHAPTER OUTLINE 10.1THE BASIC CONCEPT CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 10.1CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 10.1 10.2MIXTURE ANALYSIS AND BACK—TITRATION CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 10.2CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 10.2CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 10.3 10.3REDOX REACTIONS INVOLVING CHANGE OF N FACTOR CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 10.4CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 10.4EXERCISE 1EXERCISE 1 8910  CHAPTER 14 : GASEOUS STATE : NON-IDEAL GASESCHAPTER 15 : ATOMIC STRUCTURE-1 (Waves & Particles) 14.1LIMITATIONS OF IDEAL GAS EQUATION14.2REASONS FOR LIMITATIONS OF IDEAL GAS EQUATION14.3WHAT DO WE OBSERVE EXPERIMENTALLY FOR REAL GASES?14.4CRITICAL PHENOMENA CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 14.1 14.5PRINCIPLE OF CORRESPONDING STATES14.6THE COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR (Z OR Β ) CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 14.2CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 14.2 15.1NATURE OF LIGHT15.2A HISTORICAL NOTE ON NATURE OF LIGHT15.3PLANK’S QUANTUM THEORY CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 15.1CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 15.1 15.4PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 15.2CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 15.2 Page No. (243-300)(301-326)(327-346)(347-382)(383-408) CHAPTER 11 : GASEOUS STATE : IDEAL GAS EQUATIONCHAPTER 12 : GASEOUS STATE : KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 11 11.1INTRODUCTION11.2MEASUREMENT OF GAS PRESSURE 11.3PRESSURE P G EXERTED BY LIQUID COLUMNS CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 11.1CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 11.1 11.4BOYLE’S LAW CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 11.2CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 11.2 11.5CHARLE’S LAW CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 11.3CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 11.3 11.6GAY—LUSSAC’S LAW CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 11.4 12   CHAPTER OUTLINE 12.1KINETIC THEORY OF GASES CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 12.1CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 12.1 12.2CALCULATION OF THE PRESSURE OF A GAS12.3KINETIC ENERGY OF GASES12.4RMS VELOCITY12.5AVERAGE & MOST PROBABLE SPEEDS OF GAS MOLECULES CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 12.2CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 12.2 CHAPTER 13 : GASEOUS STATE : EUIDIOMETRY  13.1INTRODUCTION13.2METHODS OF COLLECTING GASES13.3METHODS OF DRYING GASES. CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 13.1CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 13.1CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 13.2CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 13.2 13.4REACTION IN EUDIOMETRY CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 13.3CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 13.3CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 13.4OBJECTIVE EXERCISE 14 CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 11.4 11.7AVOGADRO’S HYPOTHESIS CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 11.5CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 11.5 11.8THE COMBINED GAS LAW (IDEAL GAS EQUATION)11.9DALTON’S LAW OF PARTIAL PRESSURES CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 11.6CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 11.6 11.10MEASUREMENT OF GAS DENSITY11.11BAROMETRIC DISTRIBUTION LAW CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 11.7EXERCISE 1EXERCISE 2 12.6GRAHAM’S LAW OF DIFFUSION AND EFFUSION CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 12.3CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 12.3 12.7MAXWELLIAN DISTRIBUTION OF MOLECULAR SPEEDS12.8EXPRESSION OF ENERGY DISTRIBUTION12.9MOLECULAR COLLISIONS FREQUENCY CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 12.4CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 12.4OBJECTIVE EXERCISE 13 14.7VAN DER WAALS EQUATION CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 14.3CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 14.3 14.8VIRIAL EQUATION OF STATE14.9OTHER EQUATIONS OF STATE CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 14.4EXERCISE 1EXERCISE 2 15 15.5WAVE—PARTICLE DUALITY CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 15.3 15.6THE UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 15.4CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 15.4 15.7ELECTRONS IN ATOMS15.8RUTHERFORD’S PLANETARY MODEL OF THE ATOMS EXERCISE 1EXERCISE 2  Page No. (409-428)(429-462)(463-480)(481-526)(527-540)(541-556) CHAPTER 16 : ATOMIC STRUCTURE-2 (Bohr's Theory) 16   16.8CORRECTION FOR FINITE MASS OF NUCLEUS(THE REDUCED MASS)16.9SOMMERFIELD’S MODEL CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 16.1CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 16.1EXERCISE 1EXERCISE 2 16.1CONCEPTUAL BACKGROUND16.2BOHR’S THEORY : THE ASSUMPTION16.3BOHR’S THEORY : THE DERIVATIVE16.4THE BOHR ATOM16.5VIBRATIONS, STANDING WAVES AND BOUND STATES16.6CONSISTENCY WITH WAVE NATURE OF ELECTRONS16.7DEFECTS OF BOHR’S THEORY CHAPTER 17 : ATOMIC STRUCTURE-3 (Quantum Mechanical Model) CHAPTER 18 : NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY  17.1THE SCHRÖDINGER EQUATION17.2PHYSICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE WAVE FUNCTION17.3REPRESENTING A WAVE FUNCTION ON GRAPHS / IN FIGURES17.4QUANTUM NUMBERS17.5PAULI EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 17.1CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 17.1 17.6HUND’S RULE18.1DISCOVERY OF NUCLEUS18.2CLASSIFICATION OF NUCLIDES CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 18.1CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 18.1 18.3ARRANGEMENTS WITHIN A NUCLEUS :VARIOUS POPULAR MODELS18.4THE SHELL MODEL18.5THE LIQUID DROP MODEL CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 18.2CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 18.2EXERCISE 1EXERCISE 2 CHAPTER 19 : CHEMICAL BONDING-1 19.1CHEMICAL BONDS19.2COVALENT BOND19.3METALLIC BOND CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 19.1CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 19.1 19.4THE OCTET RULE19.5VALENCE BOND THEORY CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 19.2CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 19.2 19.6FORMAL CHARGE19.7WRITING A COVALENT MOLECULE19.8DRAWING ELECTRON—DOT FORMULAE(LEWIS DOT STRUCTURES)17.7RULES FOR ASSIGNING ELECTRONS TO ATOMIC ORBITALS17.8ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION OF ATOMS17.9SHIELDING17.10SLATER’S RULES CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 17.2CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 17.2EXERCISE 1EXERCISE 2 1718 19.9RESONANCE CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 19.3CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 19.3 19.10VSEPR THEORY : AQUICK LOOK 19.11HYBRIDIZATION OF ATOMIC ORBITALS19.12TYPES OF HYBRID ORBITALS19.13MORE ABOUT HYBRIDISATION CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 19.4CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 19.4 19.14BOND STRENGTH AND BOND ANGLES CONCEPT BUILDING EXERCISE 19.5CONCEPT TESTING EXERCISE 19.5EXERCISE 1EXERCISE 2 19 CHAPTER 20 : CHEMICAL BONDING-2 20.1MOLECULAR ORBITAL THEORY20.2USING MO THEORY TO DESCRIBE HOMONUCLEAR DIATOMICMOLECULE20.3BOND PROPERTIES AND MOL THEORY20.4EXPERIMENTAL PROOF FOR EXISTENCE OF MO20.5HETERONUCLEAR DIATOMICS MOLECULES EXERCISE 1EXERCISE 2 20 CHAPTER 21 : CHEMICAL BONDING-3 (Dipole Moment, Faian's Rule, Hydrogen Bonding) 21.1SOME MOLECULES ARE POLAR21.2THE DIPOLE MOMENT21.3THE COVALENT CHARACTER : FAJAN’S IS RULES21.4FORCES BETWEEN THE MOLECULES21.5HYDROGEN BONDING EXERCISE 1EXERCISE 2 21
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