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influential approaches

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INFLUENTIAL APPROACHES BEHAVIORIST APPROACHES INPUT APPROACHES General ideas -How children behave can be shaped by adults. Children should be exposed to English that they can -Teachers introduce new knowledge by clear understand, and is not pressured to produce it until explanation and demonstration. they are ready to do so naturally. Type of
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    INFLUENTIAL APPROACHES BEHAVIORIST APPROACHES INPUT APPROACHES  General ideas -How children behave can be shaped by adults. -Teachers introduce new knowledge by clear explanation and demonstration. Children should be exposed to English that they can understand, and is not pressured to produce it until they are ready to do so naturally. Type of classroom Teacher-centered Teachered  – centered, but more modern Advatanges -   Short term -   Letting children take notes a lot and repeat patterns in choral drills. -   Short term -   Helping children pick up some English from what they hear from teachers or tapes. -   Making children feel more relaxed and positive about English Disadvantages -   Long term -   Limiting the natural curiosity and potential of children => Diminishing child ren’s motivation and ability to learn and explore English -   Long term -   Familiarizing children with reciving input without many chances to learn actively => not training children to become active and sefl -motivated Current state Cosidered outdated and flawed but still pervasively influencing the education system Considered to make a lot of sense in an ESL learning environmet    CHILD-CENTERED APPROACHES Humanistic approaches Constructivist appraches  General aim help children reach their full potential both as learners and as people help children make sense of the world (build up, test and adjust theoretical models of how the world works) in which they fond themselves. Jean Piaget George Kelly Lev Vygotsky Viewpoints and ideas In order to reach the general aim, their should be 3 conditions: -A tolerance of ambiguity -An acceptance of self and others - Having “peak experiences” that lead to personal tranformation through new personal insights Children’s development depends on their age Cognitive conflict and adaptation helps chilren learn more deeply: +Assimilation: new information is adapted to fit with old known information. +Accommodation: known informatin is adapted to fit with new information. Children’s development depends on their quality of experience. Children build an internal framewok and expand it by noticing patterns and replications in the environment aroung them. People tend to move in directions which have personal meaning and in which their mental framework will be Children’s development depend on their social interaction. Children should interact with children and adults with more knowledge than they to reach beyond their present level - Zone of proximal development. We do not learn language to communicate. We first learn to communicate and then learn language.    enhanced and elaborated. Techniques Teachers cause deliberate confusion to strengthen children’s ability to handle ambiguity Teachers recognize the importance of self-esteem and and cooperative learning to encourage children accept themselves and others. Teachers emphasize the impotance of children building up their mental model of English, achieving success after struggle and experimentation, and using patterns the have notoces to make guesses to help chilren learn through peak experiences. As suggested by age-related stages, teachers should be symply “facilitators”, getting out of the way and letting children learn naturally. However, this is not supported since there is not enough learning. As suggested by subsequent research which stated that development depends more on contexts rather on age, teachers should challenge and stimulate children, not just facilitators. Teachers should attract children towards the world of English, and make them feel that if they explore this world, they will be given a chance to experiment for themselves in ways that feel meaningful. Teachers interract with children using English that is just beyond their level. Teacher let children interact with each other even though their English is at the same level. When introducing a new target langage, teachers crate a situation where the children want to express themselves but don’t have enough necessities and finally discover the target which enables them to do so.
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