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Hypotheses on the Development of Judaism and Christianity in Syria in the Period after 70 CE

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Hypotheses on the Development of Judaism and Christianity in Syria in the Period after 70 CE
    uub van de Sandt ed.) M TTHEW ND THE DID CHE wo Documents from the Same Jewish-Christian Milieu? 2005 Royal Van Gorcum, Assen Fortress Press, Minneapolis  This volume is a cooperative venture of Royal Van Gorcum and Fortress Press. b) 2005 Koninklijke Van Gorcum BY P.O . Box 43, 9400 AA Assen, The Netherlands All rights reserved. Except for brief quotations in critical articles or reviews, no part of this book may be reproduced in any manner without prior written permission from the publisher. In North America, write: Permissions, Augsburg Fortress, Box 1209, Minneapolis, MN 55440. Elsewhere, write: Royal Van Gorcum, P.O. Box 43, 9400 AA Assen, The Netherlands. ISBN 90 232 4077 4 Royal Van Gorcum) 0 8006 3722 4 Fortress Press) Printed n The Netherlands by Royal Van Gorcum, Assen, The Netherlands  ; Contents page Introduction 1 I Milieu 11 1 Hypotheses on the Development of Judaism and Christianity in Syria in the Period after 70 C. E 13 Bas tt r Haar Rommy 2 The Milieu of Matthew, the Didache, and Ignatius of Antioch: Agreements and Differences 35 Clayton jt fford The Two Documents: Their Provenance and Origin 49 3 The History and Social Setting of the Matthean Community 51 Wim "We"n 4 When, Why, and for Whom Was the Didache Created? lnsights into the Social and Historical Setting of the Didache Communities 63 Aaron Milavt c ll Two Documents from the Same Jewish-Christian Milieu? 85 5 The Sermon on the Mount and the Two Ways Teaching of the Didache 87 Kari Syruni 6 The Use of the Synoptics or Qin Did. 1:3b-2:1 105 John S. Kloppmborg 7 The Halakhic Evidence of Didache 8 and Matthew 6 and the Didache Community s Relationship to Judaism 131 Pt tt r Tomson V  8 Didache 9-10: A Litmus Test for the Research on Early Christian Liturgy Eucharist 143 Gerard Rouwhorst 9 Les charismatiques itinerants dans la Didache et dans l ~vangile de Matthieu (with an English abstract) 157 ndre Tui/ier 10 Two Windows on a Developing Jewish-Christian Reproof Practice: Matt 18:15-17 and Did 15 :3 173 Huub van dt Sandt 11 Eschatology in the Didache and the Gospel o Matthew 193 ]oseph Vtrhrydtn 12 Do the Didache and Matthew Reflect an Irrevocable Parting o the Ways with Judaism? 217 ]onathan A rap~r Cumulative Bibliography 243 Indices 265 VI  Chapter One Hypotheses on the Development of Judaism and Christianity in Syria in the Period after 70 C.E. Bas ter Haar Romeny Faculty ofTheology, Leiden University (The Netherlands) The editor of this volume, uub van de Sandt, appropriately asked me to write not about Judaism and Christianity in Syria after 70, but about theses or even hrpotheses . The problem of the subject is the lack of direct sources from the period after 70 until about 200. Most descriptions of the period tend to rely to some extent on rabbinic texts and the Church Fathers as sources. However, the church historian who seems to serve us best, Eusebius of Caesarea, wrote his Historia Ecclesiastica at the beginning of the fourth century, at least 200 years after the events. Even the Mishna ~ s not compiled before the beginning of the third century. But the main problem ts perhaps not so much the distance in time, but the fact that all sources, also those from the period itself, are written from a certain perspective. This is the perspective of the winning parties: the rabbinic form of Judaism that became prevalent, and the form of Christianity that was adopted as orthodox in the synods called together by Constantine and his successors in the fourth century. Even the ecclesiastical authors from the time before the synods write from this same perspective: others were simply not handed down to us. This article will discuss some of the difficulties in forming a reliable picture of Jewish and Christian communities in the area and period under review. The search for contemporary evidence that can be connected directly to a city in the area will bring us eventually to the example of Edessa. The situation in this city -and especially the extent of its Hellenization and the srcins of the local Church - has been the subject of debate for over a century. However, some recent publications point to additional evidence from an unexpected   source, the Syriac translation of the Old Testament. This evidence leads to an adjustment of the hrpothesis of a predominantly pagan srcin for Edessan Christianity, as it attests to a significant Jewish influence. Together with information from other sources, including some long-neglected inscriptions, it helps us understand the complex reality of life in the small cities of Syria, in which separation from others was an impossible and even undesirable ideal. he investigations were funded by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). 1 ~~ t is the evidence is likely to e overlooked by those who are not at home in the discussions on the ~ngms of the Syriac Bible. Thus the latest treatment of early Christianity and Edessan culture completely tgnores it: Ross , Roman Etkssa Chapter 6. 13
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