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FINAL BOOK ON LANGUAGE RICH EUROPE - Edited by Guus Extra & Kutlay Yagmur

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FINAL BOOK ON LANGUAGE RICH EUROPE - Edited by Guus Extra & Kutlay Yagmur
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  LANGUAGE RICH EUROPE  TRENDS IN POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR MULTILINGUALISM IN EUROPE With the support of: This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.Published by EDITORS:  Guus Extra and Kutlay Ya ğ mur  LANGUAGE RICH EUROPE  TRENDS IN POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR MULTILINGUALISM IN EUROPE With the support of: This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. EDITORS:  Guus Extra and Kutlay Ya ğ mur  Published by Cambridge University Press, on behalf of the British Council. November 2012. © Language Rich Europe, British Council. You can copy, download (www.language-rich.eu) or print content of Language Rich Europe for your own use and you can include excerpts from Language Rich Europe in your own documents, presentation, blogs, website and teaching materials, provided that suitable acknowledgements of the Langauge Rich Europe publication as source and copyright owner British Council are given. All requests for public or commercial use and translation rights should be submitted to info@language-rich.eu. The responsibility for ideas or opinions expressed in this publication lies with the authors. The European Commission is not responsible for those ideas or opinions nor for any use that may be made of them.Printed and bound in Italy by Rotolito Lombarda SpA  1LANGUAGE RICH EUROPE CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  ........................................................................................................................... 2INTRODUCTION Martin Hope  .................................................................................................................................................................... 6KEY FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION Guus Extra and Kutlay Ya ğ mur   ............................................................................................................ 8 PART 1: TOWARDS EUROPEAN INDICATORS OF LANGUAGE POLICIES AND PRACTICES Guus Extra and Kutlay Ya ğ mur   ........................................................................................................ 131.1 European actors in promoting multilingualism and plurilingualism  ................................................................................ 141.2 The trilingual formula and plurilingualism  ........................................................... 191.3 Language varieties explored in the project ................................................... 201.4 Language domains addressed in the survey  ............................................... 221.5 Data collection and the three-cities approach  ......................................... 231.6 Research methodology  ................................................................................................................ 25 PART 2: CROSS-NATIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE LANGUAGE RICH EUROPE RESULTS Kutlay Ya ğ mur, Guus Extra and Marlies Swinkels  .................................................. 282.1 Languages in official documents and databases  .................................. 292.2 Languages in pre-primary education  ..................................................................... 342.3 Languages in primary education ................................................................................... 382.4 Languages in secondary education  ......................................................................... 462.5 Cross-sectional perspectives on (pre-)primary and secondary education  ........................................................................................................ 542.6 Languages in further and higher education  ................................................. 562.7 Languages in audiovisual media and press  ................................................... 602.8 Languages in public services and spaces  ...................................................... 632.9 Languages in business  .................................................................................................................. 662.10 Cross-sectional perspectives on multilingual profiles beyond education  .................................................................................................... 70References in Parts I and 2  ................................................................................................................. 71Glossary  ........................................................................................................................................................................... 73 PART 3: NATIONAL AND REGIONAL PROFILES Introduction Guus Extra, Martin Hope & Kutlay Ya ğ mur   ............................ 751. Austria Tanja Nagel, Anke Schad, Barbara Semmler and Michael Wimmer   ..................................................................................................................................... 832. Bosnia and Herzegovina  Jasmin Džindo and Selma Žeri´ c  ......... 913. Bulgaria Gueorgui Jetchev   ....................................................................................................... 974. Denmark Sabine Kirchmeier-Andersen  ............................................................. 1045. Estonia Kersti Sõstar   ...................................................................................................................... 1116. France Louis-Jean Calvet   ........................................................................................................ 1197. Germany Ingrid Gogolin, Joana Duarte, Patrick Grommes ........ 1268. Greece Sara Hannam and Evagelia Papathanasiou  ........................ 1319. Hungary Csilla Bartha .................................................................................................................. 13810. Italy Monica Barni  .............................................................................................................................. 14611. Lithuania Irena Smetoniene˙ and Julija Moskvina  .................................. 15412. Netherlands Saskia Benedictus-van den Berg  ........................................ 16212.1 Netherlands at large  ...................................................................................................... 16212.2 Friesland  .......................................................................................................................................... 16913. Poland Liliana Szczuka-Dorna  .......................................................................................... 17314. Portugal  J. Lachlan Mackenzie  ...................................................................................... 18015. Romania  Alexandru Cernat, Anca Nedelcu, Stefan Colibaba, C˘ alin Rus, Ruxandra Popovici  ...................................... 18716. Spain  ..................................................................................................................................................................... 19416.1 Madrid, Valencia, Sevilla Marta Gení s  .................................................. 19416.2 Catalonia F. Xavier Vila i Moreno  .................................................................. 20116.3 Basque Country Iván Igartua ........................................................................ 20817. Switzerland Raphael Berthele, Bernhard Lindt-Bangerter, Susanne Obermayer   ...................................................................................................................... 21518. Ukraine Lyubov Naydonova  ............................................................................................... 22519. United Kingdom  .................................................................................................................................. 23219.1 England Teresa Tinsley and Philip Harding-Esch  ................ 23219.2 Wales Hywel Jones  ......................................................................................................... 24019.3 Scotland Teresa Tinsley and Philip Harding-Esch  ............... 24719.4 Northern Ireland Teresa Tinsley and Philip Harding-Esch .................................................................................................. 254  2LANGUAGE RICH EUROPE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The British Council wishes to thank the following persons and institutions for their contributions to the publication. Language Rich Europe co-ordination team: Karin Berkhout, Secretary of Babylon, Tilburg UniversityProfessor Guus Extra, Chair of Language and Minorities, Tilburg UniversityMartin Hope, Language Rich Europe Project Director (until August 2012), British CouncilSimon Ingram-Hill, Language Rich Europe Project Director (from September 2012), British CouncilChristiane Keilig, Communications Co-ordinator, British CouncilEilidh MacDonald, Project Co-ordinator, British CouncilNadine Ott, Former Senior Project Manager, British CouncilAneta Quraishy, Senior Project Manager, British CouncilDavid Sorrentino, Communications Manager, British CouncilMarlies Swinkels, Department of Culture Studies, Tilburg University Dr Kutlay Ya ˘  gmur, Associate Professor of Multilingualism, Tilburg University Language Rich Europe Steering Group members: Dr Juan Pedro de Basterrechea, Director of Fundraising and Sales, Instituto CervantesProfessor Guus Extra, Chair of Language and Minorities, Tilburg UniversityProfessor Mário Filipe, Vice-President, Instituto CamõesMartin Hope, Director Benelux and EU Office British Council (until August 2012)Thomas Huddleston, Policy Analyst, Migration Policy GroupSimon Ingram-Hill, Director Hungary, British Council (from September 2012)Tony Jones, Senior Adviser (English), British CouncilDr Elidir King, Director, the Languages CompanyUlla-Alexandra Mattl, Co-ordinator of EUNIC in BrusselsXavier North, Delegate-General for the French language and languages of France, Ministry of Culture and CommunicationAneta Quraishy, Senior Project Manager, Language Rich EuropeJoseph Sheils, Former Head of the Department of Language Education and Policy, Council of EuropeWolf von Siebert, Project Management, Language and Integration, Goethe Institute Liliana Szczuka-Dorna, Head of Department of Modern Languages, Poznan University of Technology Partner consortium: This first edition of Language Rich Europe – Trends in policies and practices for multilingualism in Europe  has been produced thanks to the extensive, long-term collaboration of our consortium of trusted partners, to whom we are extremely grateful for their energy and commitment: Austria: EDUCULT – Institute for Cultural Policy and Management Belgium: Migration Policy Group, EUNIC in Brussels, Danish Cultural Institute and Universiteit Gent/Ghent University (Steunpunt Diversiteit en Leren/Director Centre for Diversity and Learning) Bosnia and Herzegovina:  University of Sarajevo – Faculty of Philosophy Bulgaria:  Sofia University – Faculty of Classical and Modern Philologies Denmark:  Danish Language Council Estonia: National Examinations and Qualifications Centre France: Observatoire Européen du plurilinguisme Germany: University of Hamburg, LiMA – Linguistic Diversity Management in Urban Areas and Goethe-Institut Greece: South East European Research Centre Hungary:  Research Institute for Linguistics – Research Centre for Multilingualism Italy:  Università per Stranieri di Siena, lend   – lingua e nuova didattica Lithuania:  Lithuanian Social Research Centre – Institute of Labour and Social Research, State Commission on the Lithuanian Language Netherlands:  Tilburg University – Babylon, Centre for Studies of the Multicultural Society, Mercator Kenniscentrum – Fryske Akademy Poland: Foundation Institute for Quality in Education Portugal:  ILTEC – Institute of Theoretical and Computational Linguistics, Instituto Camões Romania: Centre Education 2000+, EuroEd Foundation Spain: Instituto Cervantes, Universidad Nebrija, Department of Culture of the Basque Government, University of Barcelona Switzerland:  University of Fribourg – Institute of Multilingualism Ukraine: Institute of Social and Political Psychology United Kingdom: The Languages Company, Welsh Language Board (conducted initial research), CILT – National Centre for Languages (conducted initial research)
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