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CTRL Specialist Report Anglo-Saxon small finds: Saltwood Tunnel, Textile manufacturing implements Channel Tunnel Rail Link London and Continental Railways Oxford Wessex Archaeology Joint Venture Early Anglo-Saxon textile manufacturing implements

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CTRL Specialist Report Anglo-Saxon small finds: Saltwood Tunnel, Textile manufacturing implements Channel Tunnel Rail Link London and Continental Railways Oxford Wessex Archaeology Joint Venture Early Anglo-Saxon textile manufacturing implements from
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  CTRL Specialist Report Anglo-Saxon small finds: Saltwood Tunnel, Textile manufacturing implements   Channel Tunnel Rail Link London and Continental Railways Oxford Wessex Archaeology Joint Venture   Early Anglo-Saxon textile manufacturing implements from Saltwood Tunnel, Kent  by Penelope Walton Rogers and Ian Riddler CTRL Specialist Report Series 2006 London and Continental Railways All rights including translation, reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of London and Continental Railways 1  CTRL Specialist Report Anglo-Saxon small finds: Saltwood Tunnel, Textile manufacturing implements   TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................3 2 THE WEAVING BATTEN..................................................................................................3 3 SHEARS.................................................................................................................................4 4 BIBLIOGRAPHY.................................................................................................................5 ILLUSTRATIONS All artefact catalogue descriptions and illustrations are included in the illustrated grave catalogue 2  CTRL Specialist Report Anglo-Saxon small finds: Saltwood Tunnel, Textile manufacturing implements   1   INTRODUCTION Textile manufacturing implements were not common within the early Anglo-Saxon cemeteries and are limited to a weaving batten from grave C3762 in the Western cemetery and two three sets of iron shears, one set from grave C3762 and the other two from graves C4699 in the Western cemetery and W1279 in the Central cemetery. 2   THE WEAVING BATTEN by Penelope Walton Rogers An iron weaving batten, or sword-beater ( ON 2048 ) was recovered from grave C3762 (Fig. 86). To judge from the position of teeth, beads and buckle in relation to the batten, it must have lain,  point down, to the right of the woman’s waist. The batten is 523 mm long, of which 100 mm is the pointed tang for the handle and 15 mm the incomplete remains of a tongue–like projection at the tip. The tang has remains of a wooden handle. The blade is heavily corroded but Brian Gilmour (2006) has identified it as of composite construction and purpose made and not from a cut–down sword. These battens were used to beat up the weft when weaving on the warp–weighted loom. The sword–shaped form with tang handle and an extension on the tip is typical of east Kent, where there have been 12 similar finds, and another from Chessell Down, Isle of Wight, belongs in the same group (reviewed in Walton Rogers forthcoming). There are also five examples from graves in the East Midlands and East Anglia and a sixth from the settlement at West Stow, Suffolk. This distribution continues into the Continent, where a related form of beater has been found mostly north and east of the Rhine (ibid.). These sword–shaped beaters contrast with the spear–shaped form with socketed handle of northern England, which has its closest links with  Norwegian beaters (Walton Rogers 1998, 292-4). The Saltwood batten comes from a particularly well furnished burial and the other Kent  battens also come from graves of women with jewellery and accessories indicative of rank. Battens made of wood would also have been in use, but it is probable that the owner of the iron  batten was a senior member of the household who was responsible for overseeing cloth  production (Chadwick 1958, 21; Walton Rogers forthcoming). Sword–beaters first appear in graves in the early–mid 6th century. There is a steady lengthening of the blade from 376 mm in the earliest from Buckland I G20, which has recently 3  CTRL Specialist Report Anglo-Saxon small finds: Saltwood Tunnel, Textile manufacturing implements   been re–dated to the early part of Buckland Phase 2, 510/30-550/60 (Brugmann forthcoming); to 765 mm in the Final Phase bed burial at Edix Hill G18 (Malim and Hines 1998, 52, 219, 234, 282-7). The Saltwood example, which before breakage of the tip was probably 530–540 mm long, fits the date in the mid to late 6th century (Phase 3) provided by the Kentish disc brooch and Costume Style V. 3   SHEARS by Ian Riddler Three sets of iron shears came from two graves in the Western cemetery (C3762 and C4699) and one in the Central cemetery (W1279) (Figs. 86, 119 and 218). With the two sets from the Western cemetery the blades extend to approximately half of the length of the object, whilst with the other set they are somewhat longer. All three are graves of female gender and two are late graves of phase 5 – 6. Shears have also been found in east Kent cemeteries including Cuxton, Dover Buckland, Finglesham and Polhill, again in late contexts, and often in association with other items of textile manufacture (Evison 1987, 113; Hawkes 1973, 198). They can be differentiated from the miniature versions found in male graves of fifth and sixth century date, which formed a part of toilet sets (Blackmore 2004). Richardson notes the presence of 33 examples from Kent (Richardson 2005, 156). It had previously been thought that full-sized shears only occurred in 7th century graves but the set from grave C3762 adds to the growing evidence for their presence in graves of 6th century date (Geake 1997, 96). This complements the evidence from the Continent (and from southern Germany in particular) where shears appear in  both male and female graves, those of males being generally longer than those of females, and those of females occurring in 6th century contexts and firmly associated with textile manufacture (Koch 2001, 240). The same association has been made for those of Middle and Late Saxon date (Riddler 2001A, 244-5). It remains true, however, that in early Anglo–Saxon England the majority stem from graves of the second half of the 7th century or later. Geake (1997, 97) has questioned the association of shears with textile manufacture and two of the graves from Saltwood do not include any further items of that type. The third grave (C3762) did, however, also include a weaving batten, as noted above. 4  CTRL Specialist Report Anglo-Saxon small finds: Saltwood Tunnel, Textile manufacturing implements  5  4   BIBLIOGRAPHY Blackmore, L, 2004 Personal Items and Tools from Cuxton, CTRL specialist report series, in ADS 2006 Brugmann, B, forthcoming The Brooches, and Dover Buckland Cemetery Chronology, in Parfitt and Andrews forthcoming Chadwick Hawkes, S, 1958 The Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Finglesham, Kent: a reconsideration,  Med Archaeol    2 , 1-71 Drinkall, G, and Foreman, M, 1998 The Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Castledyke South, Barton-on- Humber, Sheffield Excavation Reports 6 , Sheffield Evison, V. I, 1987  Dover: Buckland Anglo-Saxon Cemetery , HBMC Archaeological Report 3 , London Gardiner, M, Cross, R, Macpherson-Grant, N, and Riddler, I. D, 2001 Continental Trade and  Non-Urban Ports in Mid-Anglo-Saxon England: Excavations at Sandtun , West Hythe, Kent,  Archaeological Journal 158 , 161-290 Geake, H, 1997 The Use of Grave-Goods in Conversion-Period England, c. 600 – c. 850, BAR, Brit Ser 261, Oxford Gilmour, B, 2006 Metallurgical analyses on Early Anglo-Saxon grave goods from Saltwood Tunnel, CTRL specialist report series, in ADS 2006 Hawkes, S C, 1973 The Dating and Social Significance of the Burials in the Polhill Cemetery, in Philp 1973, 186-201 Koch, U, 2001  Das alamannische-fränkische Gräberfeld bei Pleidelsheim, Forschungen und Berichte zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte in Baden-Württemberg 60 , Stuttgart Malim, T, and Hines, J, 1998 The Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Edix Hill (Barrington A), Cambridgeshire , CBA Research Report 112 , London Parfitt, K. and Anderson, T, forthcoming The Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Dover Buckland. The 1994 Excavations, London Philp, B, 1973  Excavations in West Kent, 1960-1970 , Kent Archaeology Research Reports 2 , Dover Richardson, A, 2005 The Anglo-Saxon Cemeteries of Kent, BAR, Brit Ser 391, Oxford Riddler, I. D, 2001A The Small Finds, in Gardiner et al   2001, 228-52 Walton Rogers, P, 1998 The Swordbeater, in Drinkall and Foreman 1998, 274-9 Walton Rogers, P, forthcoming The Weaving Batten, in Parfitt and Anderson forthcoming
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