Economy & Finance

35 pages
3 views

CTRL Specialist Report Anglo-Saxon small finds: Saltwood Tunnel, Personal equipment and structural ironwork Channel Tunnel Rail Link London and Continental Railways Oxford Wessex Archaeology Joint Venture Early Anglo-Saxon personal equipment and

of 35
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Share
Description
CTRL Specialist Report Anglo-Saxon small finds: Saltwood Tunnel, Personal equipment and structural ironwork Channel Tunnel Rail Link London and Continental Railways Oxford Wessex Archaeology Joint Venture Early Anglo-Saxon personal equipment and
Transcript
  CTRL Specialist Report Anglo-Saxon small finds: Saltwood Tunnel, Personal equipment and structural ironwork    Channel Tunnel Rail Link London and Continental Railways Oxford Wessex Archaeology Joint Venture   Early Anglo-Saxon personal equipment and structural ironwork from Saltwood Tunnel, Kent  by Ian Riddler, Esther Cameron and Sonja Marzinzik    CTRL Specialist Report Series 2006 London and Continental Railways All rights including translation, reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of London and Continental Railways 1  CTRL Specialist Report Anglo-Saxon small finds: Saltwood Tunnel, Personal equipment and structural ironwork    TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................4 2 HORSE HARNESS...............................................................................................................4 3 GAMING PIECES................................................................................................................5 4 LEATHER POUCH OR SHOE...........................................................................................7 5 KEYS AND CHATELAINES..............................................................................................8 6 RINGS..................................................................................................................................11 7 IRON CHAIN......................................................................................................................11 8 TWEEZERS.........................................................................................................................12 9 LOZENGES.........................................................................................................................12 10 CRYSTAL BALL................................................................................................................13 11 KNIVES................................................................................................................................14 11.1 Introduction....................................................................................................................14 11.2 Knife types.....................................................................................................................14 11.3 The Sizes of Knives.......................................................................................................15 11.4 Pairs of Knives...............................................................................................................16 11.5 Handles and Blades........................................................................................................17 11.6 Knife Types and Gender................................................................................................18 11.7 Sheaths of knives...........................................................................................................19 12 MISCELLANEOUS IRON IMPLEMENTS....................................................................19 13 ROMAN MATERIAL FROM EARLY ANGLO-SAXON GRAVES............................22 14 STRUCTURAL IRONWORK...........................................................................................23 14.1 Introduction....................................................................................................................23 14.2 Cleats..............................................................................................................................23 14.3 Clench Nails...................................................................................................................26 14.4 Nails...............................................................................................................................28 14.5 Additional Ironwork.......................................................................................................29 15 BIBLIOGRAPHY...............................................................................................................30 2  CTRL Specialist Report Anglo-Saxon small finds: Saltwood Tunnel, Personal equipment and structural ironwork    LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Graves with Keys..............................................................................................................9 Table 2: Knives by type.................................................................................................................15 Table 3: Large Knives and Short Seaxes.......................................................................................16 Table 4: East Kent Graves with Pairs of Knives...........................................................................17 Table 5: Clench Nails from East Kent Graves..............................................................................27 ILLUSTRATIONS All artefact catalogue descriptions and illustrations are included in the illustrated grave catalogue 3  CTRL Specialist Report Anglo-Saxon small finds: Saltwood Tunnel, Personal equipment and structural ironwork    1   INTRODUCTION The personal equipment from the early Anglo-Saxon cemeteries at Saltwood includes horse harness, gaming pieces, a leather pouch or shoe, keys, chatelaines and rings, chain, tweezers, lozenges, a quartz crystal ball, knives and their sheaths and a number of miscellaneous iron implements. Most of the objects are made of iron. The small quantity of Roman objects found in early Anglo-Saxon graves are discussed here, as well as the structural ironwork. The texts are written by Ian Riddler, with the exception of those credited to Esther Cameron and Sonja Marzinzik. 2   HORSE HARNESS The iron components of horse harness lay underneath the angon at the foot of grave C1081 in the Central cemetery, on the left side of the burial, beyond the coffin (Fig. 140). The harness consists of a snaffle bit with large iron rings at either end, onto which rectangular mounts with looped ends are now accreted. Beyond this lay a number of interlocking rings with a figure-of-eight mount at the centre of the arrangement. To either side of the ring harness were strap distributors and further rectangular mounts with looped ends, either bound together ( ON 1144 ) or attached to a central ring ( ON 1142 ). There was no trace of a horse in the grave and there would not have  been enough room for an animal in the space to the south of the coffin. The teeth of a horse were discovered in grave C1244, which lay to the north of this burial, reasonably close to grave C1048 and plausibly associated with that grave. The components of three strap distributors ( ONs 868 , 870  and 871 ), attached to iron rings, were found in grave C1048, but there was no sign there of any snaffle bit. Nonetheless, this also appears to be part of a harness arrangement of a similar type to that in grave C1081. Horse burials and harness equipment in early Anglo-Saxon England were reviewed by Vierck and they have been considered also by Härke and Lucy (Vierck 1970-1; Härke 1992, 121-3; Lucy 2000, 90-2). The horses themselves have been evaluated by O’Connor (1994). Recent excavations have emphasised Vierck’s assertion that the north Midlands and East Anglia were centres for horse burial during the early Anglo-Saxon period (Vierck 1970-1, 190-1). At the same time, the relative quantity of such burials in early Anglo-Saxon England is low and there is clearly a further centre to be identified in Kent, where horse equipment is more common than horse burials, a reversal of the situation seen elsewhere (Härke 1992, 122). Kent burials with 4  CTRL Specialist Report Anglo-Saxon small finds: Saltwood Tunnel, Personal equipment and structural ironwork   horse equipment include Bourne Park Barrow C, Faversham, Howletts and Sarre (Vierck 1970-1, 191 and note 255; Wright 1845, 255; Faussett 1856, 96). Snaffle bits have been found in Bourne Park Barrow C and possibly, in part at least, in Sarre graves 28 and 271 (Richardson 2005, 311 and 326). Vierck has noted that they tend to define the more auspicious horse burials, with the horse itself often present nearby, if not in the immediate vicinity of the burial (Vierck 1970-1, 191). Horses’ teeth were found in Sarre grave 43 and this burial, alongside that at Breach Downs, where the jaw of a horse was found (Baldwin-Brown 1915, 421) could conceivably reflect the situation seen at Saltwood, with the burial of a horse placed at some distance from one or more graves containing horse equipment. More recently, a horse burial was found at Lyminge, once again separate from the inhumation graves of the cemetery, and unaccompanied (Richardson 2005, II, 48). In Kent, therefore, the horse harness is not normally found with the horse itself. Within east Kent the deposition of horse harness appears to be limited to the later 6th and early 7th centuries. The assemblage of rings, strap distributors and snaffle bits from grave C1081 is similar in form to those from Marston St. Lawrence (Vierck 1970-1, abb 58). Both are united by the simplicity of the equipment, which is entirely of iron and does not include any decorative mounts. The same situation occurs with other contemporary burials, as with those pieces from Sarre and Market Overton illustrated by Baldwin-Brown (1915, pl C.5-6) and the fittings from Bourne Park Barrow C, Snape grave 47 and West Heslerton grave 186 (Wright 1845, figs 5-6; Filmer-Sankey and Pestell 2001, fig 110; Haughton and Powlesland 1999, 331-3). These sets conform with Merovingian ring harness, as defined by Oexle (1992, 19 and abb 2.1), which has a simple, functionally oriented design. Merovingian examples are largely of 6th century date, with a few occurring in the 5th century, but very few in 7th century contexts (Oexle 1992, 32-4 and abb 4). 3   GAMING PIECES Two graves in the Central cemetery contained gaming pieces. A set of at least 42 antler counters was found close to the copper-alloy bowl in grave C1048, and a single ceramic counter was recovered from grave C6653, near to the lower part of the angon in that burial. The gaming  pieces in grave C1048 survived because of their proximity to the bowl, whose corrosion products effectively neutralised the acidic soil of the surrounding area. The counters were found underneath the bowl, close to a leather object identified below by Esther Cameron as a pouch or shoe. Fragments of wood were also present. These are undecorated and are likely to represent  parts of the burial structure, rather than components of a gaming board. 5
Related Documents
View more...
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks