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Communications and the Earliest Wheeled Transport of Eurasia

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Communications and the Earliest Wheeled Transport of Eurasia
   Victor A. Novozhenov  Communications and the Earliest Wheeled Transport of Eurasia Edited by E.E. Kuzmina TAUS PublishingMoscow, 2012  Рецензенты:Байпаков Карл Молдахметович, д.и.н., академик НАН РК.Рогожинский Алексей Евгеньевич, к.и.н. In his new book, the author treats the problems of ancient Eurasian societies in completely unexpected and innovative ways, reconstructs the wheeled transport and mythological ideas of the ancients and their ritual practice based on the latest achieve-ments in the archeological science.The miracle of communication consists in a rapid spread of new knowledge and in- ventions over long distances, which allowed ancient societies to apply such innovations in everyday life, and their rulers to use these «wonderful» achievements in managing their clans and large-scale projects. The ability of societies to quickly perceive and copy the wonders of technology – both ancient and modern – underlies the economic prog-ress of nations.The book is illustrated with rare and little-known materials from the Louvre, the Hermitage, the Guimet Museum, historical museums in Urumqi, Xi’an, and many others. A signicant part of the publication are materials collected during numerous archaeological expeditions to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, China, India, as well as in Bulgaria and France.The book is supplied with an electronic multimedia application which contains, ad-ditionally to its electronic version, more than 4GB of various illustrative materials, for  various reasons absent in the present book, the previous editions by the same author, as well as exhibits and video catalogs of leading world museums related to the problem of chariots.The author addresses his book primarily to young researchers, students, graduate students – all those whose enthusiasm is so lacking now in the study of ancient myster-ies in history of the Eurasian steppes.  Victor A. Novozhenov  Communications and the Earliest Wheeled Transport of Eurasia. Edited by Elena Kuzmina  – M. Taus, 2012. – 500 p. Ill. Н 74 УДК 94(3+075) Н 74ISBN 978-601-06-1783-4 © TAUS Publishing Moscow, 2012© KIT Publishing, 2012© V.A. Novozhenov, 2012  TABLE OF CONTENTS 3 Editor’s preface. 5  Author’s foreword. 8  Acknowledgements and Contributions. 10 In place of Introduction. 11 The great miracle of communication.  11 Channels of communication in ancient times.  16 To the problem of reconstruction of the ancient communications.  24 How to decipher the «message»? 27 The cart image in the petroglyphs of eastern Eurasia.  34  Archaeological and pictorial sources. 42  Written sources. 47 Territory.  73 Tools and methods.  74Chapter 1 Spread of a cart image among petroglyphs of Eurasia and classication of cart images.   78 The general and the specic in the images of Asian carts.   90 Typology, the purpose and a «style» features.  93 General comments on the iconography and the relative chronology. 113Chapter 2 The earliest centers of wheeled vehicles and formation of a transcontinental communication system (end of 4 – 3rd millennium BC). 117 The ancient Near East. 118 Transcaucasia.  125 Steppes of Eurasia. 130 Eastern and Central Europe. 144 To the problem of an ancestral home of the wheel. 147 Monuments of the eastern part of Eurasia. 150 Reconstruction of migration routes in the 3rd – early 2nd millennium BC. 163 Table of contents  4 TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 3  Age of chariots: beginning of the 2nd millennium – end of the 1st millennium BC. 176 The problem of srcin of chariots. 177 Chariots of Egypt and Assyria. 179  An Asian chariot complex. 184 Classication of the chemakyn chariots. 211 Chariot's harness and equipment. 229 Complex of charioteer’s weapons. 250 Features of the funeral rite. 259 Dating of the Asian chariot complex and the chronological priority. 265 Pictorial sources. 272  Asian chariot petroglyphs. 290Chapter 4 Ethno-cultural situation in the era of chariots. 293 Chronology and Seima-Turbino pictorial tradition. 300 External channels of communication. 304Chapter 5 The «message»: communication with Gods. 319  Afterword. 333 Glossary. 337 Application 1  Visualization of attributes in a database. 342 The Catalog of Eurasian’s engravings of vehicles. 357 Application 2 Chinese chariots. 379 Application 3  Additional reading: overview of the new ndings and publications. 385   Bibliography    431 List of abbreviations. 479    5 EDITOR’S PREFACE Editor’s preface heeled vehicles were invented by natives of the Ancient Orient civi- lization at the end of 4th – 3rd millennium BC and since then they continue evolving  year by year, sweeping the globe. Their invention was one of the greatest achieve-ments in human history. It is the use of  wheeled transports that provided quick colonization by Indo-Europeans and estab-lishment of the broadest cultural ties be-tween Scandinavia and China, the Eurasian steppes and India.This naturally caused great interest of scientists to the problem of history of transport, starting with the classic works of Gordon Childe (Childe 1954), Mary Ai - ken Littauer and Joost Crouwel (Littauer, Crouwel 1979), and Stuart Piggott (Piggott 1983). The number of studies in this area of communication is truly enormous. And the present work occupies a completely unique place in that pool of information.Name of Victor A. Novozhenov became famous upon publication in 1994 of his  valuable book «Rock paintings of carts in Middle and Central Asia». Nevertheless, the present work by the scientist is a brand new study in history.Its novelty is expressed by three factors: 1.  Previously unknown extension and completeness of sources; 2.  An innovative, carefully reasoned and detailed classication system of all source types. 3.  Adoption of a wide range of sources on history of transport in China for scien- tic use.  W 
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