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Benzyl Chlorid Final

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    Survey of benzyl chloride (CAS no. 100-44-7) Part of the L!S-revie #Serie$ %itle and year& Consultation draft  ' Survey of benzyl chloride (CAS no. 100-44-7) Title:  Survey of benzyl chloride (CAS no. 100-44-7) Editing: Pia runn Poul$en *+C, %echnoloy aria Strande$en *+C, %echnoloy  Ander$ Sch/idt *+C, %echnoloy Published by: %he ani$h ,nviron/ental Protection Aency Strandade ' 1401 Co2enhaen 3 en/ar   ./$t.d5enli$h Photography: #6a/e& Illustration: #6a/e&  Year: #& Map: #6a/e& ISBN no. #&   Disclaimer:  8hen the occa$ion ari$e$ the ani$h ,nviron/ental Protection Aency ill 2ubli$h re2ort$ and 2a2er$ concernin re$earch and develo2/ent 2ro9ect$ ithin the environ/ental $ector financed by $tudy rant$ 2rovided by the ani$h ,nviron/ental Protection Aency. :t $hould be noted that $uch 2ublication$ do not nece$$arily reflect the 2o$ition or o2inion of the ani$h ,nviron/ental Protection Aency. ;o ever 2ublication doe$ indicate that in the o2inion of the ani$h ,nviron/ental Protection Aency the content re2re$ent$ an i/2ortant contribution to the debate $urroundin ani$h environ/ental 2olicy.  8hile the infor/ation 2rovided in thi$ re2ort i$ believed to be accurate %he ani$h ,nviron/ental Protection Aency di$clai/$ any re$2on$ibility for 2o$$ible inaccuracie$ or o/i$$ion$ and con$e<uence$ that /ay flo fro/ the/. 6either the ani$h ,nviron/ental Protection Aency nor *+C, %echnoloy or any individual involved in the 2re2aration of thi$ 2ublication $hall be liable for any in9ury lo$$ da/ae or 2re9udice of any ind that /ay be cau$ed by 2er$on$ ho have acted ba$ed on their under$tandin of the infor/ation contained in thi$ 2ublication. Source$ /u$t be acno leded.  Survey of benzyl chloride (CAS no. 100-44-7)=  ontents Pre!ace ......................................................................................................................   Summary and conclusions ......................................................................................... #   Sammen!atning og $on$lusion ................................................................................ %&   %.   Introduction to ben'yl chloride ........................................................................ %#   1.1   efinition of the $ub$tance ................................................................................................... 1>   1.'   Phy$ical and che/ical 2ro2ertie$ ......................................................................................... 1   (.   )egulatory !rame*or$...................................................................................... (%   '.1   Lei$lation ............................................................................................................................. '1   '.1.1   ,i$tin lei$lation ................................................................................................. '1   '.1.'   !2co/in lei$lation ............................................................................................ '4   '.1.=   Cla$$ification and labellin ................................................................................... '4   '.1.4   +,AC; .................................................................................................................. '?   '.1.?   ther lei$lation5initiative ................................................................................... '@   '.'   :nternational aree/ent$ .................................................................................................... '@   '.'.1   a$el Convention................................................................................................... '@   '.'.'   *ree %rade Aree/ent (the ,! and 3orea) ......................................................... '@   '.'.=   :nternational Convention$ reardin $afety and 2ollution at $ea ....................... '@   '.=   ,co-label$ ............................................................................................................................. '7   '.4   ther li$t$ ............................................................................................................................. '7   '.?   Su//ary and conclu$ion$ ................................................................................................... '7   &.   Manu!acture and uses ...................................................................................... (+   =.1   anufacturin ..................................................................................................................... '   =.1.1   anufacturin 2roce$$ ......................................................................................... '   =.1.'   anufacturin $ite$ .............................................................................................. =0   =.1.=   anufacturin volu/e$ ........................................................................................ =0   =.'   :/2ort and e2ort ................................................................................................................. =1   =.'.1   :/2ort and e2ort of benzyl chloride in en/ar ............................................... =1   =.'.'   :/2ort and e2ort of benzyl chloride in the ,! .................................................. ='   =.=   !$e ........................................................................................................................................ ='   =.=.1   ain u$e$ of benzyl chloride orld ide .............................................................. ='   =.=.'   ain u$e$ of benzyl chloride in en/ar and the other 6ordic countrie$ ........ =4   =.=.=   ain u$e$ of benzyl chloride in ,! ...................................................................... =4   =.=.4   !$e of benzyl chloride in con$u/er 2roduct$  a$ an i/2urity .......................... =?   =.4   ;i$torical trend$ in u$e .........................................................................................................=7   =.?   Su//ary and conclu$ion$ ....................................................................................................=7   ,.    -aste management .......................................................................................... ,   4.1    8a$te fro/ /anufacture and u$e of benzyl chloride ......................................................... 40   4.'    8a$te 2roduct$ fro/ the u$e of benzyl chloride in /iture$ and article$ .......................... 41   4.=   +elea$e of benzyl chloride fro/ a$te di$2o$al.................................................................. 4'   4.=.1   %he fate of benzyl chloride in incineration facilitie$ ............................................ 4'   4.=.'   %he fate of benzyl chloride hen handled a$ Bhazardou$ a$te ......................... 4=   4.4   Su//ary and conclu$ion$ ................................................................................................... 4=    4 Survey of benzyl chloride (CAS no. 100-44-7) /.   En0ironmental e!!ects and !ate ......................................................................... ,/   ?.1   ,nviron/ental hazard ......................................................................................................... 4?   ?.1.1   %oicity to a<uatic orani$/$ ............................................................................... 4?   ?.1.'   %oicity to /icroorani$/$ .................................................................................. 47   ?.1.=   %oicity to $edi/ent livin orani$/$ ................................................................. 47   ?.1.4   %oicity to terre$trial orani$/$ .......................................................................... 47   ?.1.?   %oicity to the at/o$2here ................................................................................... 47   ?.1.@   Cla$$ification ......................................................................................................... 47   ?.1.7   Cla$$ification of the reaction 2roduct benzyl alcohol .......................................... 47   ?.'   ,nviron/ental fate .............................................................................................................. 4>   ?.'.1    Air .......................................................................................................................... 4>   ?.'.'    8ater ..................................................................................................................... 4>   ?.'.=   Sedi/ent ................................................................................................................ 4   ?.'.4   Soil ......................................................................................................................... 4   ?.'.?   iota ....................................................................................................................... 4   ?.'.@   P% ........................................................................................................................ 4   ?.'.7   Conclu$ion ............................................................................................................. ?0   ?.=   ,nviron/ental e2o$ure ..................................................................................................... ?0   ?.=.1   ain $ource$ of relea$e ......................................................................................... ?0   ?.=.'   onitorin data ..................................................................................................... ?1   ?.4   ,nviron/ental i/2act ......................................................................................................... ?=   ?.?   Su//ary and conclu$ion$ ................................................................................................... ?4   .   1uman health e!!ects ....................................................................................... //   @.1   ;u/an health hazard ...........................................................................................................??   @.1.1   Cla$$ification ..........................................................................................................??   @.1.'   %oicoinetic$ ab$or2tion di$tribution /etaboli$/ and ecretion ..................??   @.1.=    Acute toicity ......................................................................................................... ?@   @.1.4   Sin and eye irritation .......................................................................................... ?@   @.1.?   Sin $en$iti$ation ................................................................................................... ?7   @.1.@   +e2eated do$e toicity ........................................................................................... ?7   @.1.7   Chronic toicity and carcinoenicity ..................................................................... ?7   @.1.>   +e2roductive and develo2/ental toicity............................................................ ?>   @.1.   Denotoicity .......................................................................................................... ?>   @.1.10   6eurotoicity ......................................................................................................... ?>   @.1.11   ://unotoicity ..................................................................................................... ?   @.1.1'   ,ndocrine di$ru2tion ............................................................................................ ?   @.1.1=   Co/bination effect$ .............................................................................................. ?   @.'   ;u/an e2o$ure .................................................................................................................. ?   @.'.1   irect e2o$ure ..................................................................................................... ?   @.'.'   :ndirect e2o$ure .................................................................................................. @0   @.=   io-/onitorin data ............................................................................................................. @1   @.4   ;u/an health i/2act ........................................................................................................... @1   @.4.1   Con$u/er$ .............................................................................................................. @1   @.4.'    8orer$ ................................................................................................................. @'   @.4.=   :ndirect e2o$ure .................................................................................................. @'   @.?   Su//ary and conclu$ion$ ................................................................................................... @=   2.   In!ormation on alternati0es ..............................................................................   7.1   :dentification of 2o$$ible alternative$ ................................................................................. @@   7.1.1    Alternative$ for u$e a$ che/ical inter/ediate for 2roduction of benzyl alcohol ................................................................................................................... @@   7.1.'    Alternative$ for u$e a$ che/ical inter/ediate for 2roduction of benzyl <uaternary a//oniu/ co/2ound$ ..................................................................... @7  
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