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    1 10 CHAPTER 10: STAIRCASES Introduction Staircases provide means of movement from one floor to another in a structure. Staircases consist of a number of steps with landings at suitable intervals to provide comfort and safety for the users. Some common types of stairs are shown in Figure 10.1. These include straight-flight stairs, quarter-turn stairs, half-turn stairs, branching stairs, and geometrical stairs. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)    2 (h) (i) (j) Figure 10.1: (a); (b) Straight flight stairs; (c) Quarter-turn stairs; (d) Half-turn stairs; (e) Branching stairs; (f) Open-well (half turn); (g) Open-well with quarter turn landing; (h); (i); (j) Geometrical stairs Technical Terms The definitions of some technical terms, which are used in connection with design of stairs, are given. a.   Tread or Going: horizontal upper portion of a step.  b.   Riser: vertical portion of a step. c.   Rise: vertical distance between two consecutive treads. d.   Flight: a series of steps provided between two landings. e.   Landing: a horizontal slab provided between two flights. f.   Waist: the least thickness of a stair slab. g.   Winder: radiating or angular tapering steps. h.   Soffit: the bottom surface of a stair slab. i.    Nosing: the intersection of the tread and the riser.  j.   Headroom: the vertical distance from a line connecting the nosings of all treads and the soffit above. Figure 10.2 shows main technical terms associated with stairs design.    3 Figure 10.2: Stairs main technical terms Types of Stairs For purpose of design, stairs are classified into two types; transversely, and longitudinally supported. a-   Transversely supported (transverse to the direction of movement): Transversely supported stairs include: §   Simply supported steps supported by two walls or beams or a combination of both. §   Steps cantilevering from a wall or a beam. §   Stairs cantilevering from a central spine beam. b-    Longitudinally supported (in the direction of movement): These stairs span between supports at the top and bottom of a flight and unsupported at the sides. Longitudinally supported stairs may be supported in any of the following manners: a.   Beams or walls at the outside edges of the landings.  b.   Internal beams at the ends of the flight in addition to beams or walls at the outside edges of the landings. c.   Landings which are supported by beams or walls running in the longitudinal direction. d.   A combination of (a) or (b), and (c). e.   Stairs with quarter landings associated with open-well stairs.    4 Design of Stairs Simply Supported Figure 10.3 shows a stair, simply supported on reinforced concrete walls. Figure 10.3: Simply supported stairs The waist is chosen to accommodate the reinforcement using appropriate concrete cover. A waist t   of 7.5 cm  is reasonable for this type of stair. Loading: a.   Dead load: The dead load includes own weight of the step, own weight of the waist slab, and surface finishes on the steps and on the soffit. b.   Live Load: Live load is taken as building design live load plus 150 kg/m 2 , with a maximum value of 500 kg/m 2 .    5 Design for Shear and Flexure: Each step is designed for shear and flexure. Main reinforcement runs in the transverse direction at the bottom side of the steps while shrinkage reinforcement runs at the bottom side of the slab in the longitudinal direction. Since the step is not rectangular, an equivalent rectangular section can be used with an average height equals to 2cos  Rt h avg   += α   Example (10.1): Design a straight flight staircase in a residential building that is supported on reinforced concrete walls 1.5 m  apart (center-to-center) on both sides and carries a live load of 300 kg/m 2 . The risers are 16 cm  and goings are 30 cm . Goings are provided with 3 cm  thick marble finish while 2 cm  thick plaster is applied to both the risers and bottom surfaces of the slab. Use 2 250 kg/cm f  c  =′ , 2 4200 kg/cm f   y  = , 3 2.2  t/m    plaster   = , and 3 62  t/m.   marble  = . Solution: Minimum stair thickness required to satisfy deflection requirements is given by cml h 5.72015020 min  ===  Let slab waist t   be equal to 7.5 cm . Average step height is given as cmcmh avg  5.75.16 8823.05.78cos5.78  >=+=+= α   Loading: a.   Dead load: Own weight of step = (0.30) (0.16/2) (2.5) = 0.06 t/m  of step Own weight of slab = (0.34) (0.075) (2.5) = 0.06375 t/m  of step Weight of marble finish = (0.03) (0.30) (2.6) = 0.0234 t/m  of step Weight of plaster finish = (0.02) (0.34 + 0.16) (2.2) = 0.022 t/m  of step b.   Live load: Live load = (0.30) (0.3) = 0.09 t/m  of step
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