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The Mystery of the Historical Jesus: The Messiah in the Qur'an, the Bible, and Historical Sources

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The Mystery of the Historical Jesus: The Messiah in the Qur'an, the Bible, and Historical Sources
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  Copyrighted Material © 2007 Louay Fatoohi http://www.quranicstudies.com By book from Amazon.comBy book from Amazon.co.uk  Contents Preface ................................................................................................................................. 1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 5 1. Approaches to the Study of History in the Qur’an and the Bible ..................................... 11 1.1. The Secular Approach ................................................................................................................. 11 1.1.1. The Unavailability of Independent Evidence .......................................................................... 12 1.1.2. Similarities Between the Bible and Other Sources ................................................................. 13 1.1.3. Similarities Between the Qur’an and Jewish and Christian Writings ...................................... 18 1.1.4. The Question of the Paranormal ............................................................................................ 19 1.2. The Biblical Approach .................................................................................................................. 20 1.2.1. Internal Biblical Discrepancies ............................................................................................... 21 1.2.2. Unfactual Biblical Statements ................................................................................................. 23 1.2.3. The indefinability of the “Bible” and “Scripture” ...................................................................... 23 1.2.4. The False Superiority of the Canon ........................................................................................ 26 1.3. The Secular-Biblical Approach ..................................................................................................... 28 1.4. The Qur’anic Approach ................................................................................................................ 31 1.4.1. Islamic Sacred Texts .............................................................................................................. 31 1.4.2. The Authenticity of the Qur’an ................................................................................................ 33 1.4.3. The Qur’an and Other Scriptures ........................................................................................... 35 1.4.4. Contextual Displacement as a Form of Scriptural Textual Manipulation ................................ 38 1.4.5. Refuted Accusations .............................................................................................................. 40 1.5. The Approach of This Book ......................................................................................................... 41 2. Mary Before the Annunciation ........................................................................................ 45 2.1. Mary Before the Annunciation in the Apocrypha .......................................................................... 45 2.1.1. The Account of the Gospel of the Birth of Mary ..................................................................... 45 2.1.2. The Account of the Infancy Gospel of James ......................................................................... 46 2.1.3. The Account of the Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew ..................................................................... 47 2.2. Mary Before the Annunciation in the Qur’an ................................................................................ 48 3. Prophet Zechariah: Mary’s Guardian .............................................................................. 57 3.1. Zechariah in the New Testament ................................................................................................. 57 3.2. Zechariahs in the Apocrypha ....................................................................................................... 59 3.3. Prophet Zechariah in the Qur’an .................................................................................................. 60 3.3.1. Prophet Zechariah in Chapter 3 (The Family of ‘Imrān) ......................................................... 61 3.3.2. Prophet Zechariah in Chapter 19 (Maryam) ........................................................................... 66 4. Prophet John .................................................................................................................. 73 4.1. John the Baptist in the New Testament ....................................................................................... 73 4.2. John the Baptist in History ........................................................................................................... 78 4.3. Prophet John in the Qur’an .......................................................................................................... 79 5. More Than Annunciation ................................................................................................ 87 5.1. The Annunciation in the New Testament ..................................................................................... 87 Copyrighted Material © 2007 Louay Fatoohi http://www.quranicstudies.com By book from Amazon.comBy book from Amazon.co.uk   VI T HE M  YSTERY O F T HE H ISTORICAL J ESUS 5.2. The Annunciation in the Apocrypha ............................................................................................. 88 5.3. The Annunciation and the Inducement of the Virginal Conception According to the Qur’an ....... 90 5.3.1. Gabriel’s Visit and the Inducement of the Virginal Conception in Chapter 19 ........................ 91 5.3.2. Gabriel’s Visit and the Annunciation in Chapter 3 .................................................................. 95 6. The Virginal Conception ................................................................................................. 99 6.1. The Virginal Conception in Christian Sources ........................................................................... 100 6.2. The Arguments Against the Virginal Conception ....................................................................... 101 6.2.1. The Scriptural Arguments ..................................................................................................... 101 6.2.1.1. Unknown Story ................................................................................................................ 102 6.2.1.2. Contradictory Accounts ................................................................................................... 108 6.2.1.3. Different Infancy Narratives ............................................................................................ 110 6.2.2. The Historical Arguments ..................................................................................................... 111 6.2.3. The Scientific Arguments ..................................................................................................... 113 6.3. The Accusation of the Illegitimacy of Jesus ............................................................................... 114 6.4. The Qur’an’s Affirmation of the Virginal Conception .................................................................. 117 7. The Rūḥ   (Spirit) ............................................................................................................ 121 7.1. The Hebrew Ruach   in the Old Testament .................................................................................. 121 7.2. The Greek Pneuma   in the New Testament ................................................................................ 122 7.3. The Arabic Rūḥ   in the Qur’an .................................................................................................... 124 7.3.1. Gabriel .................................................................................................................................. 124 7.3.2. The Spirit of the Creation of Man ......................................................................................... 127 7.3.3. Inspiration ............................................................................................................................. 134 8. Joseph: Mary’s Husband? ............................................................................................ 137 8.1. Joseph in Christian Sources ...................................................................................................... 137 8.1.1. Joseph and Mary .................................................................................................................. 137 8.1.2. Joseph and Jesus................................................................................................................. 139 8.2. The Non-historicity of Joseph According to the Qur’an .............................................................. 143 9. Did Jesus Have Brothers and Sisters? ......................................................................... 145 9.1. Paul and Jesus’ Brothers ........................................................................................................... 145 9.2. Jesus’ Brothers and Sisters in the Gospels ............................................................................... 146 9.3. The Church and Jesus’ Brothers and Sisters ............................................................................ 148 9.4. James......................................................................................................................................... 150 9.4.1. Paul and James .................................................................................................................... 151 9.4.2. James in Other New Testament Books ................................................................................ 154 9.4.3. James in History ................................................................................................................... 156 9.5. The Qur’an’s Implicit Rejection of Jesus’ Siblings ..................................................................... 163 10. Jesus’ Birth ................................................................................................................. 165 10.1. Jesus’ Birth in the Canonical Gospels ..................................................................................... 165 10.2. Jesus’ Birth in Apocryphal Sources ......................................................................................... 170 10.3. The Star of Bethlehem ............................................................................................................. 171 10.4. Jesus’ Birth in the Qur’an ......................................................................................................... 173 10.5. Birth Under A Palm Tree .......................................................................................................... 180 10.6. Jesus’ Date of Birth .................................................................................................................. 186 Copyrighted Material © 2007 Louay Fatoohi http://www.quranicstudies.com By book from Amazon.comBy book from Amazon.co.uk  C ONTENTS VII   11. Massacre of Truth ...................................................................................................... 195 11.1. Herod’s Massacre in Christian Sources ................................................................................... 195 11.2. The Non-historicity of Herod’s Massacre According to the Qur’an .......................................... 199 11.3. A Massacre That Never Was ................................................................................................... 201 11.3.1. The Scriptural Arguments ................................................................................................... 201 11.3.2. The Historical Arguments ................................................................................................... 205 11.4. The Massacre That Did Happen .............................................................................................. 207 12. Was Jesus A Nazarene From Nazareth? ................................................................... 215 12.1. Jesus’ Birth and Growing up places ......................................................................................... 215 12.2. “Nazarene” in the New Testament ........................................................................................... 218 12.3. The Nazarenes of the Qur’an ................................................................................................... 224 13. The Messiah ............................................................................................................... 231 13.1. The Messiah in the Old Testament .......................................................................................... 231 13.2. The Christ in the New Testament ............................................................................................ 236 13.2.1. Self-proclamation and the Public Acceptance of Jesus’ Messiahship ................................ 236 13.2.2. Faces of the Messiah ......................................................................................................... 238 13.2.2.1 Son of David .................................................................................................................. 238 13.2.2.2 Miracle Worker ............................................................................................................... 239 13.2.2.3 King of the Jews ............................................................................................................. 242 13.2.2.4 Founder of an Imminent Kingdom.................................................................................. 246 13.2.2.5 Salvational Figure .......................................................................................................... 247 13.2.2.6 Suffering Messiah .......................................................................................................... 248 13.2.2.7 Virtuous Teacher ............................................................................................................ 249 13.2.3. The Messiah’s Entry into Jerusalem .................................................................................. 249 13.3.  Al-Masīḥ   in the Qur’an ............................................................................................................. 251 14. The Divine Son of God That Jesus Never Was .......................................................... 257 14.1. The Jewish “Sonship of God” ................................................................................................... 257 14.2. The Christian “Sonship of God” ............................................................................................... 259 14.2.1. Sonship of God, Messiahship, and Miracle Working .......................................................... 260 14.2.2. Sonship of God and Blasphemy ......................................................................................... 261 14.2.3. Christian Sons of God ........................................................................................................ 263 14.2.4. The Unique Son of God ...................................................................................................... 264 14.2.5. The Eternal Son of John ..................................................................................................... 268 14.2.6. When Did Jesus’ Sonship of God become Special? .......................................................... 270 14.3. The Prevailing of the Johannine Theology ............................................................................... 272 14.4. The Trinity ................................................................................................................................ 275 14.5. Son of Man ............................................................................................................................... 278 15. The Human Jesus ...................................................................................................... 287 15.1. Muslim Messenger and Prophet .............................................................................................. 287 15.1.1. Islam ................................................................................................................................... 287 15.1.2. Messenger and Prophet ..................................................................................................... 290 15.2. Human Servant of God ............................................................................................................ 293 15.3. Forerunner of Prophet Muhammad .......................................................................................... 295 Copyrighted Material © 2007 Louay Fatoohi http://www.quranicstudies.com By book from Amazon.comBy book from Amazon.co.uk   VIII T HE M  YSTERY O F T HE H ISTORICAL J ESUS 15.4. The Exclusiveness of Divinity .................................................................................................. 297 15.4.1. The Oneness of God .......................................................................................................... 297 15.4.2. No Offspring of God............................................................................................................ 299 15.4.3. False Sonship of God ......................................................................................................... 303 15.4.4. The Fallacy of the Trinity .................................................................................................... 309 16. Miracles ...................................................................................................................... 313 16.1. Wonder Workers at the Time of Jesus ..................................................................................... 313 16.2. Jesus’ Miracles in the New Testament .................................................................................... 321 16.2.1. The Categories of Jesus’ Miracles ..................................................................................... 322 16.2.1.1. Healing Miracles ........................................................................................................... 323 16.2.1.2. Nature Miracles ............................................................................................................. 325 16.2.1.3. Prophecies .................................................................................................................... 326 16.2.1.4. Clairvoyance ................................................................................................................. 327 16.2.2. Different Gospel Accounts .................................................................................................. 327 16.2.3. The Significance and Purpose of Miracles ......................................................................... 330 16.2.4. Miracles and Faith .............................................................................................................. 334 16.2.5. Miracles between Publicity and Secrecy ............................................................................ 338 16.3. Jesus’ Miracles in Apocryphal Writings .................................................................................... 342 16.4. Jesus’ Miracles in the Qur’an ................................................................................................... 346 17. The Injīl   (Gospel) ........................................................................................................ 357 17.1. The Term “Gospel” Before and After Christianity ..................................................................... 357 17.2. The Injīl: Jesus’ Divine Book .................................................................................................... 363 17.3. The Meaning of “Injīl” ............................................................................................................... 364 17.4. The Paraclete ........................................................................................................................... 369 17.5. The Injīl and the Law ................................................................................................................ 377 17.5.1. Jesus and the Law in the New Testament ......................................................................... 377 17.5.2. The Injīl’s Modification of the Law ...................................................................................... 382 18. The Crucifixion in the New Testament and Historical Sources ................................... 389 18.1. Inconsistencies in the New Testament Accounts of the Crucifixion ......................................... 390 18.2. Historical Problems in the New Testament Accounts of the Crucifixion .................................. 404 18.3. Who Killed Jesus? ................................................................................................................... 409 18.4. The Crucifixion in History ......................................................................................................... 414 18.5. Alternative Scenarios ............................................................................................................... 428 18.6. The Date of the Crucifixion ...................................................................................................... 432 19. The Qur’an and the Cross Fiction ............................................................................... 435 19.1. The Fiction of Jesus’ Crucifixion .............................................................................................. 435 19.2. The Crucifixion of Jesus’ Substitute ......................................................................................... 439 19.3. After the Crucifixion .................................................................................................................. 445 19.4. The Theology of the Crucifixion ............................................................................................... 453 19.4.1. The New Testament and Theology of the Cross ................................................................ 453 19.4.2. The Qur’an’s Rejection of the Theology of the Cross ......................................................... 459 20. A Second Coming? .................................................................................................... 467 20.1. The Second Coming in the New Testament ............................................................................ 467 Copyrighted Material © 2007 Louay Fatoohi http://www.quranicstudies.com By book from Amazon.comBy book from Amazon.co.uk
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