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Test Bank for Power and Society an Introduction to the Social Sciences 13th Edition by Harrison

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    Test Bank for Power and Society An Introduction to the Social Sciences 13th Edition by Harrison CHAPTER 2 Social Sciences and the Scientific Method   TRUE/FALSE  1.   The scientific method develops and tests theories about how observable facts or events are related in order to explain them. ANS: True REF: 20 2.   Hypotheses are tentative statements about a relationship between facts or events that should be derived from the theory and should be testable. ANS: True REF: 21 3.   A relationship that is likely to have occurred by chance is said to be significant. ANS: False REF: 21 4.   Causation is a significant relationship wherein the presence of one variable (the dependent variable) causes changes in another variable (the independent variable). ANS: False REF: 21 5.   A correlation is a significant statistical relationship. ANS: True REF: 22   6.   The scientific method is descriptive, explanatory, and normative. ANS: False REF: 25 7.   The scientific method cannot test the validity of values, norms, or feelings. ANS: True REF: 25  12  Chapter 2: Social Sciences and the Scientific Method   8.   A theory is a set of interrelated concepts at a fairly low level of generality. ANS: False REF: 25 9.   The control group does not undergo the treatment and is used for comparison.   ANS: True REF: 27 10.   A probabilistic statement applies to some portion of circumstances, and is a fact,  just like a universal statement. ANS: True REF: 27 11.   A fact in the social sciences is always considered absolute. ANS: False REF: 27 12.   If people are allowed to volunteer for the experiment, then the experimental and control groups might not be representative of the population as a whole.   ANS: True REF: 30 13.   A null hypothesis is the statement that the program or treatment had no effect. ANS: True REF: 30 14.   The sample is chosen in a way that ensures that the group is representative of the universe. The universe is the partial group about whom the information is desired. ANS: False REF: 32, 33 15.   Random sampling reduces the likelihood that the responses obtained from the sample would be the same as those obtained from the universe if everyone were questioned. ANS: False REF: 33    Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.   16.   Salient issues are those that people think about most and about which they hold weak and changeable opinions. ANS: False REF: 35 17.   The halo effect is the tendency of respondents to give “good - citizen” responses to  pollsters. ANS: True REF: 37 18.   Field research is essentially going where the action is, watching closely, and taking notes. ANS: True REF: 37 19.   Ethnography is the systematic description of a society’s customary behaviors,  beliefs, and attitudes. ANS: True REF: 38 20.   Field research often involves participant observation, during which the researcher  both observes and participates in the society being studied. ANS: True REF: 38 21.   A case study is a cursory investigation of a particular event in order to gain limited understanding of the event. ANS: False REF: 39 MULTIPLE CHOICE  1.   A method of explanation that develops and tests theories about how observable facts or events are related is a. social science.  b.   the scientific method.  14  Chapter 2: Social Sciences and the Scientific Method   c.   field work. d.   case study. ANS: B REF: 20 NOT: Factual 2.   The scientific method develops and tests theories about how observable facts or events are related in order to explain them. The social sciences seek to develop theories to explain why human beings a. think as they do.  b.   live as they do. c.   feel as they do. d.    behave as they do. ANS: D REF: 20 NOT: Conceptual 3.   A relationship that is not likely to have occurred by chance is said to be significant. After observing a significant relationship, social scientist next ask whether there is a(n) a.   causal relationship between the phenomena.  b.   undetermined relationship among the phenomena. c.   error in the hypothesis. d.   correlation in the data. ANS: A REF: 21 NOT: Conceptual 4.   A significant relationship is one that is not likely to have occurred a.   due to causation.  b.    by chance. c.   due to random actions. d.    because the timing was right. ANS: B REF: 21 NOT: Factual 5.   Deductive and inductive reasoning are part of the process of using logic and observing the phenomenon around us. Deductive reasons from general to specific, while inductive reasons from specific to a. logical.  b.   general. c.   reasonable.
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