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Simple and Cost Effective Environment Monitoring System

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Monitoring Environmental factors such as temperature measurement, light intensity, relative humidity and air composition are not only important for industrial purposes but also a cause of growing concern in our day to day life. This paper documents a
  [Dhodapkar ,  3(2): February, 2014] ISSN: 2277-9655 Impact Factor: 1.852   http: // (C)  International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research Technology [867-871]   IJESRT   INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES & RESEARCH TECHNOLOGY Simple and Cost Effective Environment Monitoring System Kunal Dhodapkar *1 , P. Sathya 2   *1 Student, II ECE, School of Electronics Engineering, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India 2 Assistant Professor, School of Electronics Engineering, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India  Abstract   Monitoring Environmental factors such as temperature measurement, light intensity, relative humidity and air composition are not only important for industrial purposes but also a cause of growing concern in our day to day life. This paper documents a construction and working of a very simple, easy to use and cost effective Environment Monitoring system which runs on battery power. It is a basic model that monitors temperature in “Celsius” and Light Intensity in “Lumens”. It starts working as soon as it is switched on and continuously shows monitored data on a LCD screen and refreshes itself every five seconds. The main objective this project is to construct a simple and effective environment monitoring system for both industrial as well as day to day use for people. It uses two sensors which are LM35 IC for temperature monitoring and Voltage divider circuit of LDR for Light Intensity measurement. It also uses Arduino Uno board which has ATmega328 microcontroller for its functioning. Arduino acts as an interface between the sensors and LCD screen. This project is successfully implemented in hardware and works excellently. The temperature readings are precise and light intensity in lumens is accurate with a negligible error of ±10%. The system is cost effective as it uses very cheap sensors, is easy to make, highly portable and compact. This is highly beneficial for low cost industrial applications, travelling situations, outdoor conditions, basic military purposes and household applications. Keywords : Arduino Uno, Embedded System, Environment monitoring, Light dependent resistor (LDR), LM35 IC, ATmega328-Microcontroller Introduction ` Today there is need to monitor environmental factors almost in all the industries and for research oriented programs. Especially in remote areas where mobile network is unavailable such as forests, deserts, mountains etc. a small environment monitoring system would prove to be a boon. But the components that are currently available to measure temperature and light intensity require manual operation and are quite bulky to carry everywhere. Also the analog data which they show requires manual effort to note readings so, there is a possibility of human error. For example, the thermometer used to note temperature contains mercury whose height indicates the current temperature is quite inefficient because it fails to provide precise values of temperature, also it takes a lot of time to reach a constant position and the photometer used to measure light intensity is bulky, has a complicated working and operation. So, there is an immediate requirement of an environment monitoring system which is accurate, easily operated, simple in working, has uncomplicated construction, cost-effective, comfortable to carry and lightweight. We aimed to make such a system which fulfills all these requirements.   There have been some previous efforts to develop a microcontroller based environmental monitoring system. One among those is ATMEL89S52 used as microcontroller to display data on LCD, ADC0809 used for Analog to digital conversion of data, and RS232 for serial data transfer which is interfaced with AT89S52 using MAX232 module. This system included data display on computer screen but there were too many components in this and circuit, programming was complicated [1]. There was another attempt to make such a system using PIC16F877A microcontroller in which the sensors were calibrated with the microcontroller and it was interfaced with a LCD [2]. For another system PIC microcontroller was used with relays to control light and temperature using a keypad and LCD. Similarly in for one system a GSM module was interfaced with PIC microcontroller through RS232 module to send data on mobile [3]. In all these systems the microcontroller has complex programming structure for execution of output. In addition, due to too many components the system becomes static and fragile which leads to  [Dhodapkar ,  3(2): February, 20   http: // (C)  Inte difficulty in fabrication. So, our envir has advantages over the above mention It uses Arduino Uno [5][ microprocessor board which contain microcontroller which works at 16-MHalso uses LM35 IC which is also calle sensing IC” to measure temperature a very popular in last few years because and precision [7]. It uses a LDR v network to measure light intensity in lu It uses a nominal voltage of 5V whic provided by a 9V battery through display we used a stunning 16×2 LC makes it very easy to note the readi readings are refreshed every 5 secon updated information. Due to extremel of microcontroller, simple programm clean user interface helps in making th to construct and efficient at work. T which are used are a lot cheaper than t used for measuring temperature and So, this makes this system cost effectiv This project can prove to be useful in various areas of applicati outdoor/climatic monitoring it can be temperature monitoring due to broa range of LM35 IC and for wildlife hab in forests. It can be used in aquatic env river temperature monitoring, Fish f indoor conditions it can be used environmental conditions to comply w Safety regulations, monitoring the effe types of building materials, e.g. insulation, Validating heating, air-c climate control systems and so on.   Proposed Block Diagram A schematic block diagram i in (Fig.1, Fig.2) to explain the general project. Fig. 1 General block diagram of the Pr 14] I Imp  national Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research [867-871]   nment system ed systems. ] or Induino s ATmega328 z frequency. It “temperature d has become of its accuracy oltage divider mens (lux)[8]. can be easily 7805IC. For screen which ngs. Also the ds to provide fast working ing codes and is system easy e components he instruments ight intensity. e also. tremendously n such as in used in glacial d temperature itat monitoring ironments like rming etc. In for recording ith Health and ts of different loft or wall nditioning or shown below concept of this posed system Fig. 2 Block diagram showing in system The components of the block explained below: Arduino UNO board: UNO board. It is open source h programmed according to Proj can be reused again and a programs and has a beautifull simple coding language. The h ATmega328 microcontroller chi with ceramic resonator of 16-Mh memory for storage. It has 14 pins (of which 6 can be us Modulation outputs), 6 analo connection, a power jack, an ICS button. It has a operating volt connect it to a computer with a U with a AC-to-DC adapter or b board.   Fig.3 Arduino LDR: A photo-resistor resistor (LDR) or photocell i resistance decreases with incre intensity. They are found in m such as camera light meters, radios, alarm devices, night ligsolar street lamps and solar resistance varies linearly with li can be used to predict the am SSN: 2277-9655 ct Factor: 1.852   Technology   puts and outputs of diagram are briefly ig.3 shows Arduino ardware and can be ct requirements. It ain with different y crafted and very art of this board is p. It is a 28 pin IC z and 32Kb of flash digital input/output d as Pulse Width g inputs, a USB header, and a reset age of 5V. Simply SB cable or power it attery to power the Uno board or light-dependent a resistor whose asing incident light ny consumer items street lights, clock ts, outdoor clocks, oad studs, etc. Its ght intensity, which ient light intensity.  [Dhodapkar ,  3(2): February, 20   http: // (C)  Inte Graph of LDR resistance v/s light inte (lux) is shown below.(Fig.4) Fig.4 Resistance v/s Intensity of ty LM35 IC: LM35 is a 3 temperature sensing. It has many fea calibrated directly in ° Celsius (Ce Linear + 10 mV/°C Scale Factor, Accuracy, rated for Full −55°C to suitable for remote application, low wafer-level trimming operates from 4 t of tempreature versus output voltag Fig.5. Fig.5 Output Voltage v/s Temperature LCD: LCD (Liquid Crystal is an electronic display module and fin of applications. These modules are seven segments and other multi segm reasons being: LCDs are econo programmable; have no limitation special & even custom characters (u segments), animations and so on. It characters per line and there are 2 su shows a 16×2 LCD display. 14] I Imp  national Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research [867-871]   sity in lumens ical LDR pin IC for ures like it is ntigrade), has .5°C Ensured 150°C, range cost due to o 30 V. Graph is shown in °C) of LM35 isplay) screen a wide range preferred over nt LEDs. The mical; easily of displaying nlike in seven an display 16 h lines. Fig.6 Fig. 6 Pin configuration of Circuit Diagram Fig. 7 Circuit Diagram of Envir System A systematic circuit diag system is shown in figure 7. Th ground wire is common for all t sensors LM35 and LDR conne (A2, A5) of Arduino Uno board interfaced with a stunning 16×2 Corresponding interfacing pins diagram. LCD requires suppl terminals (pin2, pin5) and pin1, grounded directly and pin3 h through a 3.3k  Ω  resistor. Pin3 i intensity of characters on the L resistance (POT) can also be use resistor to increase or decreas resistance.   Working Principle The circuit has mainAcquiring analog values fro Converting analog values to didata on LCD screen. (i) Acquiring analog values LM35 IC’s analog voltage v temperature and gives value centigrade (°C ) , which varies and has a high range from -55°C the junction voltage of the volta SSN: 2277-9655 ct Factor: 1.852   Technology a 16×2 LCD nment Monitoring am of the proposed e power supply and e components. Two ted to Analog pins , and this in turn is CD screen display. are shown in the y voltage at two in5, pin16 has to be s to be grounded s used to adjust the D screen, variable d in place of 3.3k  Ω  the value of the y three parts- (i) the sensors (ii) ital (iii) Displaying from the sensors - aries linearly with directly in degree s 10mV/°C (Fig. 8) to 150°C. Similarly   ge divider circuit of  [Dhodapkar ,  3(2): February, 2014] ISSN: 2277-9655 Impact Factor: 1.852   http: // (C)  International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research Technology [867-871]   LDR varies linearly (Fig. 9) with the light intensity. That corresponding change in voltage can then be converted to light intensity [7][8]. (ii) Converting analog values to digital- The voltages are sensed by the microcontroller ADC pins and then converted into their matching digital values by ADC which is inbuilt in Arduino Uno board. The digital values are converted into their respective data’s by the program. The LM35 IC’s output voltage is directly converted to temperature in degree Celsius. The ambient light intensity is determined using LDR, since the resistance of LDR varies linearly with light intensity the junction voltage also varies linearly and hence, can be easily converted into lux units through programming. ATmega328 works at an amazing speed of 16 MHz, and since analog values have slight variation at every moment, 100 samples of each of the voltages in 100 variables are acquired. The acquired samples are averaged and converted into its corresponding values of temperature and light intensity. This process is done by software programming and it reduces the error prominently. (iii) Displaying data on LCD screen- This system forms the gift covering of the whole project. The tabulated values are stored each in a separate variable and showed alternatively at a regular interval of 5 seconds. So, this completes one cycle and these cycles will continue infinitely till power is cut off. Experimental Results And Discussions We have implemented this project model on a prototype board to demonstrate its working. We tested its accuracy at various places and noted the values at outdoors and indoors. Table.1. shows the place time and corresponding readings for a normal day. For an open area we chose an open garden for noting down the readings and for a closed area we chose a room. Graphs are also plotted for the corresponding reading for better understanding of the reader (Fig. 8, Fig. 9). Table.1: Spot Time Temperature(°C) Light Intensity (lux) 1 Open Area 06:00 20.82 108.37 2 Open Area 12:00 32.56 350.78 3 Room 14:00 29.48 276.96 4 Room 18:00 25.71 288.57 5 Open Area 20:00 22.13 14.07 6 Room 23:00 23.79 290.45 Fig. 8 Graph of light intensity v/s time Fig.9 Graph of temperature v/s time This project work is successfully implemented and the results obtained are accurate with a simple user interface. Since, LM35 is a pre-calibrated IC, it shows temperature with notable precision, and since there are some uncertainties about lumen scale the LDR shows some (+10%) error in light intensity values. Given below are some pictures of real-time working model of our project on bread-board to demonstrate its effective implementation. Fig. 10 shows measurement of light intensity in lux and in Fig. 11, it is observed that light intensity decreases when we cover LDR with hand. Fig. 12 shows temperature measurement.  [Dhodapkar ,  3(2): February, 2014] ISSN: 2277-9655 Impact Factor: 1.852   http: // (C)  International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research Technology [867-871]   Fig. 10 Light Intensity in the Room Fig. 11 Light Intensity decreased when LDR covered with hand Fig. 12 Temperature of the Room Conclusion A simplified environmental monitoring system with least number of components, and less complexity has been constructed. This system is compact and highly cost effective when compared to prices of instruments used to measure environmental factors. In future we would like to add a barometric pressure sensor, air-quality sensor (MQ135), and humidity sensor to monitor the ambient condition along with Zigbee module for wireless transmission at low cost. Arduino Uno has mostly all the capabilities inbuilt and requires less hardware for its operation. So, this makes it a perfect choice for our upgraded system.  References [1]   Goswami, T. Bezboruah and K.C. Sarma, “Design of An Embedded System For  Monitoring and Controlling Temperature and Light” , International Journal of  Electronics Engineering Research Volume (2009) pp. 27–36, Research India Publications. [2]   Kamarul Ariffin Noordin, Chow Chee Onn and Mohamad Faizal Ismail, “Low cost weather monitoring system”, CMU. Journal (2006) [3]    Dushyant Pande, Jeetender Singh Chauhan,  Nitin Parihar, “The Real Time Hardware  Design to Automatically Monitor and Control Light and Temperature”,  International Journal of Innovative  Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 5, May 2013 [4]   K. Rangan, T. Vigneswaran, “An Embedded Systems Approach to Monitor Green  House”, (2010) IEEE [5]    Alessandro D’Ausilio, “Arduino: A low-cost multipurpose lab equipment”, 25 October 2011 Springer [6]    Micheal Margolis, “Arduino cookbook”, (2012), O’Reilly Media, Inc. [7]    Datasheet, “LM35 Precision Centigrade Temperature Sensors”, November 2000,  National Semiconductor [8]    Datasheet, “Light Dependent Resistor”,  March 1997, R.S semiconductors
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