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Quoting Sources Thetsane 2012[1]

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QUOTING SOURCES In scientific writings the reader will find a wide variety of bibliographical styles, such as the APA STYLE (AMERICAN PHYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION), MLA STYLE (MODERN LANGUAGES ASSOCIATION), AMA (AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION) and the HARVARD STYLE. The research supervisors in the Department of Business Administration (DBA) have made the decision to follow the Harvard style of referencing. The decision was made for consistency purposes, as there is no right or wrong style. THE HARVAR
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  QUOTING SOURCES In scientific writings the reader will find a wide variety of bibliographical styles,such as the APA STYLE (AMERICAN PHYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION),MLA STYLE (MODERN LANGUAGES ASSOCIATION), AMA (AMERICANMEDICAL ASSOCIATION) and the HARVARD STYLE .The research supervisors in the Department of Business Administration (DBA)have made the decision to follow the Harvard style of referencing. Thedecision was made for consistency purposes, as there is no right or wrongstyle. THE HARVARD STYLE The Harvard system of referencing is a method for citing references inassignment, projects, and thesis and giving the sources of those references. Itis subscribed to by the International Standards organisation and is widelyaccepted as a good scholarly reference style. The Harvard style consists of ashort reference in the text which is supplemented by a full reference in thesource list or bibliography. 1.TEXTUAL REFERENCES In the text of your report or thesis, acknowledge each author from whom youobtained information. A brief reference which refers to a full source listreference is required. ONLY the author’s SURNAME , date (YEAR) as well as the PAGE (on whichthe information appears) should be given in the text.Example: This view is supported by Thetsane (1972:10) because…………The reference can also be given at the end of the sentence. Note thepunctuation. The main purpose of marketing is to satisfy the consumer’s requirements(Kotler, 2003:118). 2.DIRECT CITATIONS Direct citations (that is, the author’s own words) should be used functionally. You should only quote directly if the srcinal is so well stated that putting it inyour own words would be detrimental to the final effect, or if the srcinal wordsare needed for purposes of analysis and discussion of an author’s views. Forinstance, a definition of word may be quoted directly. Never quote simply toavoid translation problems. 1  2.1Punctuation If the quotation forms part of a comprehensive argument, the punctuation ispart of that argument and is placed outside the bracket or inverted comma. Example: Mokhethi (2009:12) contends that “There must be a conclusion forall sentences”.They pass the remark that “few such cases exist” (Thabo, 2003:3). Note: When a sentence between brackets or inverted commas starts with acapital letter, it indicates that this sentence is used independently and thereforerequires a full stop inside the brackets or inverted comma. Example: “It was anciently believed that a baby born with teeth alreadyformed would ‘bite the world’ and was made for villainy”. (Mokhethi, 2003:70.) Visser (1983:12) asserts: “There must be a conclusion for all sentences”. 3.INDIRECT CITATIONS When you give author’s ideas in your own words (paraphrase), you have totake care that the spirit and the argumentation of the srcinal are retained. Also, vary the style of citation in your assignment/ thesis. For example: ã Comparing the view of Jones (1986:15) with that of Smith (1994:147),it………….. ã This argument is supported by Lefu (1989:156). ã  According to Thabo (1989:21) it is ………… ã Mayer (1990:10) maintains that ………….. 4.SECONDARY CITATIONS When secondary information is used, this has to be indicated as such in thetext. For example, if Williams uses a statement made srcinally by Freud, it hasto be done as follows: Text: According to Freud (quoted by Williams, 1986:10) marketing is ………..In the source list there will be only the reference to Williams: Source list / Bibliography: WILLIAMS, L. 1986. Freud’s theories aboutdreams. London: Batsford. 97 p. 5.TEXTUAL REFERENCE TO MORE THAN ONE SOURCE Note the semicolon after each reference. There is no convention about theorder in which references are given. It may be important for the sake of argument to put them in chronological order, or from important to lessimportant. 2  Example: Unemployment in Lesotho (Khaola, 2003:89; Mokorotlo, 2004:20;Thetsane & Mokhethi, 2005:8). 6.MORE CITATIONS TO SAME AUTHOR IN SAME YEAR When you make use of more than one publication by the same authorpublished in the same year, you can distinguish it by putting an a, b. or c after the date in the text of your report, for example: According to Smith (1977a:34), the information on the internet………………In the bibliography you also have to mark the references as a and b or c:Smith , H. 1977a. Introduction to the Internet. Cape Town: Tafelbery. 215 pSmith , H. 1977b. Evaluation of Information on the Internet. Journal forcomputer science, 2(4):14-18, Apr. 7.BOOKS (MONOGRAPHS)  A source list for a book include: The title, subtitle, Author, publisher,Places of publication, Edition and Year of publication and pages .The ISBN (International standard Book Number) is not necessarily provided inthe bibliography, but remains a valuable source of information about a book,and is mainly used for purchase and orders. Should the information not becomplete, you can find what you need on the REVERSE SIDE OF THETITLE PAGE. The important DATE OF PUBLICATION can usually befound on the reverse side of the title page. For example: FERNER, J.D. 1995. Successful time management: a self-teaching guide. 2 nd ed. New York: Wiley. 230 p. Table 1.1: An example of a Book TitleSuccessful time managementSubtitlea self teaching guide AuthorJack D. FernerEdition2 nd editionPublisherJohn Wiley & Sons, IncPlace of publicationNew York  Year of publication1995Pages numbers230 pages 7.1Author (s) or editor(s) The author(s) can be the person(s) who wrote the book. An author can also bean institution, for example, the yearbook of the University or universitycalendar, of which the University is the author. 3  7.1.1One author Text: “It was anciently believed that a baby born with teeth already formedwould ‘bite the world’ and was made for villainy.” (Smith, 1977:70.)Or (Note the difference in punctuation)  An ancient superstition was that when a baby was born with teeth, it wouldbecome a villain (Smith, 1977:70). Source list / Bibliography; SMITH, L, 1977. Crime and punishment.London: Batsford. 89 p.NOTE: In the text, only the author’s surname is given and not the initials. Also note the difference in the source list where the author’s surname andthe initials are given. 7.1.2Two authors Text:Gardner and Shelton (1967:40) refer to the problem of communicationwith paralysed patients who also suffer………….. Or  All procedures must be explained to the patient (Gardner & Shelton, 1967:74). Note the difference between the two examples in the TEXT: the &sign is used in the brackets but in the full sentence the word andis used.Source list: GARDNER, E.K. & SHELTON, B. 1967. The intensive therapy unitand the nurse. London: Faber and Faber. 162p. 7.1.3Three authors or more When there are three or more authors or editors and their contributions cannotbe distinguished, the abbreviation et al . is used in the text (typed in italics).The abbreviation refers to et alii (and others) – a full stop is thus not placedafter et. All the co-workers are mentioned in the source list.Text:  According to Khaola et al. (2003:74) branding………………. Source list: KHAOLA, P.P., MOKOROTLO. G., THETSANE, R.M. 2010.Introduction to Marketing. New York: Van Nostrand. 565 p. 7.1.4Two authors with same surname 4
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