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The Effects of Two Tapering Methods on Physical and Physiological Factors in Amateur Soccer

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Two tapering methods in soccer, where tapering is still an open issue.
  See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: The Effects of Two Tapering Methods on Physicaland Physiological Factors in Amateur SoccerPlayers  Article  · January 2012 CITATIONS 2 READS 47 1 author: Rostam AlizadehIlam University 4   PUBLICATIONS   15   CITATIONS   SEE PROFILE All content following this page was uploaded by Rostam Alizadeh on 30 July 2016. The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file. All in-text references underlined in blue are added to the srcinal documentand are linked to publications on ResearchGate, letting you access and read them immediately.  World Journal of Sport Sciences 6 (2): 194-199, 2012ISSN 2078-4724© IDOSI Publications, 2012 Corresponding Author: Fariborz Hovanloo, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences,Shahid Beheshti University Tehran, Iran. 194 The Effects of Two Tapering Methods on Physical and Physiological Factors in Amateur Soccer Players  Fariborz Hovanloo, Khosrow Ebrahim,  Rostam Alizadeh and Aziz Davodi Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Tehran, Iran Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two types of tapering on some physical and physiological factors in amateur soccer players. 20 soccer players of Khoramabad amateur league (mean±SD,age 23.2±3.59 yr¡ height 177.7±5.39 cm¡ body mass.71.95±6.93 kg and Vomax 44.29 G . min G ) participated 21   1 in this study. Subjects participated in 8 weeks of physical training, 3 sessions per week. After 8 weeks of training, some physiological parameters including aerobic power, anaerobic threshold, strength and flexibilitywere determined and the subjects were divided into two groups based on these physiological measurements.These measurements were as pretest, which were followed by 10 days of tapering. During 10 days of tapering,the subjects in both groups reduced their training volume by 75% and 50%. After this period, the physiological parameters were measured again (posttest). Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 11.5 and theindependent t test was used to compare the data for two groups (P<0.05). Results showed that both tapering programs had significant increases in strength, flexibility, aerobic power and anaerobic threshold (P<0.05).The tapering with higher reduction in the volume (75%) resulted in higher increases in strength. Although thechanges in aerobic power and anaerobic threshold were higher in the group with higher tapering, there wereno significant differences between two groups (P<0.05). This research suggested that tapering after an intensiveexercise period and before competition can be useful for athletes. Therefore, it could be suggested that taperingwith high volume of reduction in training might be useful for those sports and activities for which strength isan important component. Key words: Tapering %  Aerobic power %  Anaerobic threshold %  Strength %  Flexibility INTRODUCTION athletes to achieve victory [3]. The physical fitnessStudies show that regular trainings are performed inand coach and demands great effort to maintain. As it isorder to increase body’s tolerance or attain a certainnecessary for athletes to be in their peak performancelevel of physical fitness against high intensity physicallevel in competitions season, most coaches insist a lot onactivities [1]. For this purpose, coaches make appropriateperforming training just before competitions in order to planning for training which could improve athletes’compensate for their insufficient familiarity with thegeneral and specific physical fitness through applyingsubject, which could decrease the athletes’ physicalscientific methods. They should also provide effectivefitness and ultimately give rise to their low performanceindividual and group plans to prepare athletes andlevel. Although gradual tapering is practiced worldwide inchampions by means of scientific findings so that theymany sports, particularly in individual sports, a greatcould reach their maximum performance level for certainnumber of coaches are still afraid of reducing the training prescheduled competitions in the shortest time possiblevolume prior to major sports events and presume that itthrough developing physical, psychological, skilled andmay harm athletes’ physical fitness and reduce their  physiological preparations specific to each sport [2].performance level. Optimum performance requiresAppropriate planning for physical fitness especiallytolerance against mental and physical pressures causedduring the period leading to competitions is considered toas a result of physical activities. And this comes when the be one of the factors important for athletes’ success.power of muscles and consequently functional capacityLike physical factors, sporting skills play a key role forof athletes is reduced during high intensity trainingattained is considered an important asset both for athlete  World J. Sport Sci., 6 (2): 194-199, 2012 195 period. That is why athletes reduce the volume of trainingin type IIa muscle fibers of swimmers [12, 13]. Many before the competitions to reach their ideal physical andresearches have been carried out on balancing trainingmental conditions. Decreases in the training volume inlevel within the past few decades. However, it is difficultthis period let the damaged fibers (overuse through highto come to a general conclusion because of great number intensity training) prepare and body energy sourcesof physical and physiological factors involved in athletes’replace [4]. Reducing the training volume is related to aperformance [14-16]. Besides, little information is available period (tapering) usually few weeks before theon the effect of gradual tapering on sporting performancecompetitions [1, 5]. Within a period of balancing theof athletes in team sports namely football, volleyball,training sessions in order to attain the best performancebasketball and …) and endurance sports like cycling andand maintain physical and mental capabilities, differentmarathon. Therefore, it is proposed that more extensivevariables could be foreseen. These variables includeresearch be conducted before planning for athletes’repetitions, volume, intensity, duration and method ofpreparations in such sports (team events) [4]. In thistraining [6, 7]. Based on Bompa and Hoper (2003) findings,research, it was attempted to find out if balancing thethe best variable, the reduction of which has optimaltraining level by reducing the training volume for 75% andeffects on athletes’ performance is reduction of training50% within 10 days leaves any effects on certainvolume [6]. Researches done on swimmers, cyclists andphysical or physiological factors of amateur footballrunners revealed that reduction of training volume notplayers. There remains another issue under discussion asonly decreases athletes’ physical fitness but alsoto which of the methods mentioned is more effective?improves muscle power, mental attitude as well asAnd whether the performance level of athletes undergoessporting performance [1, 5]. There exists numerousany changes after training?researches indicating that balancing and reducing thetraining volume one to three weeks before the MATERIALS AND METHODS competitions results in ideal exercise performance [7-9].Homard et al  . (1991) proved that endurance athletes can Subjects:  Subjects in this research consisted of 20maintain their aerobic power by reducing the trainingamateur soccer players (mean age 23.2±3.59 yr, heightvolume to 70%-80% within a period of 10-28 days [5].177.7±5.39cm and weight 71.95±6.93 kg) of KhoramabadZarkadas et al  . (1994) showed that two periods ofcity, Iran.reduction in the number of training sessions, one in themiddle of the season for 10 days and another, after few Method of Research:  The subjects submitted their writtenweeks from the first set for 13 days, increase power andconsent forms for participation in this research after beinganaerobic threshold in triathlon athletes. In anotherfully informed of the procedure and probable risksresearch, by 30% and 50% decrease in the training volumeinvolved. Prior to this research, they participated in ainstead of reducing the number of training sessions, hetraining program for three months, 3 sessions a   week onshowed that aerobic power and anaerobic thresholdaverage and after 8 weeks of regular preplanned trainingincreased 50% in the group that reduced the trainingand undergoing pretests [Cooper test to measure aerobicvolume [6]. In another study, Conell et al  . (1997) foundpower,   Conconi test to measure anaerobic   threshold,that a 4-week period of reduction in training volume andintensity, aerobic power and anaerobic thresholdmaintained [8]. Another research conducted by Neary et al  . (2003) showed that reduction of training volumefor respectively 30%, 50% and 80% within a period of seven days maintained the aerobic power in athletes [9].A research by Papoti et al  . (2006) on swimmers revealedthat 10 days of reduction in training volume increasedaerobic power and anaerobic threshold by 65% [10].Coutts et al  . (2006) also came up with the result thatreduction of training to seven days resulted in an increasein flexibility of chest and abdomen as well as power of rugby players [11]. Trappe et al  . (2001) and Trinity et al  .(2006) in their work came to conclusion that reduction of training volume leads to an increase in power especiallyspecial dynamometer (BASELINE) to   measure the power of leg muscles and a sit and reach test to measureflexibility]. The subjects were divided into two identicalgroups and underwent tapering (including 10 days of reduction in training volume by 75% for the first groupand 50% for the second group with similar intensity for  both groups). At the end of tapering period, both groupsunderwent posttests. Tools and Tests:  In order to determine the subjects’VO2max, Cooper standard test was administered. After warming up for 10 minutes, the subjects started runningon the track for 12 minutes on an optional basis and at theend, their VO2 max was calculated based on the followingformula:  Distance covered in Meter - 504.9VO2max = 44.73 World J. Sport Sci., 6 (2): 194-199, 2012 196 Table 1:Comparison of changes in aerobic power, anaerobic threshold, muscular strength and flexibility in two groups with 50% and 75% reduction of training volumeStatistics ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------Variable  0 SDtdfPChanges of aerobic power) ml/kg/min)50% reduction of training volume 0.860.961.314180.20575% reduction of training volume1.410.92Changes of anaerobic threshold (b.min)50% reduction of training volume1.100.880.983180.33975% reduction of training volume1.601.35Changes of muscular strength (kg)50% reduction of training volume9.108.372.136180.04775% reduction of training volume17.909.98Changes of flexibility (cm)50% reduction of training volume1.401.170.387-180.70375% reduction of training volume1.201.14 Statistical Analysis: In this research, descriptiveIn order to measure anaerobic threshold, Conconi testwas used in laboratory method on a treadmill. At the beginning, the subjects had 5 to 10 minutes of warm-upand then underwent the test on the treadmill which cameto its end by recording their data. Conconi Test:  The subject started running with an initialspeed of 8 km per hour with an increase of speed of about0.5 km/r for each 200 meters. The time spent and the heartrate at the end of each 200 meters was registered. The testwas performed in a distance range of about 2.5 to 4 kmand continued as long as the subject was able to increasehis speed after covering 200 meters. In this test, theappeared score on the chart determined the subject’sanaerobic threshold.To measure the range of motion in hip joint, sit andreach test was applied. At first, the subjects sat againstthe box with their legs and knees stretched and with their  palms downwards equal to their shoulder width, bentforward and moved their hands forward so as to touch thespot in the middle of the ruler and pause. This action wasdone for three times and the best result was recorded onthe score sheets. The Implementation of Tapering Program: The programincluded 10 days of reducing the training volume by 75%for the first group and 50% for the second group withconstant intensity for both groups in such a way that thesubjects first had 8 weeks of regular training subsequentto which they underwent pretests and were divided intotwo groups based on strength and aerobic power.Then, the training volume was reduced for 10 days and atthe end of the tapering period, posttests were carriedout.statistics (mean and standard deviation) was used todescribe data and for the research hypotheses and datacomparison of two groups, t test was designed for independent groups and for data comparison between pretests and posttests in groups, dependent t test withsignificant level of p<0.05 was used. RESULTS The results showed no significant differences in pretest between the two groups. This means that thesetwo groups were similar in four variables of aerobic power,anaerobic threshold, muscle strength and flexibility.After comparing pretest and posttest and clarifying thatreduction of training volume to 50% and 75% affectedaerobic power, anaerobic threshold, strength andflexibility, the effect of comparing these two methods onthe measured variables came into consideration.Table 1 showed that there was no significantdifference in aerobic power between the two groups.In other words, there was no significant difference between the effects of 50% and 75% reduction of trainingvolume (p=0.205, df=18, t=1.314) (Fig. 1).In Table 1, the results indicated no significantdifference in anaerobic threshold between the two groups.In other words, there was no significant difference between the effects of 50% and 75% reduction of trainingvolume (p=0.339, df=18, t=0.983) (Fig. 2).Results in Table 1 showed that the effect of 75%reduction of training volume on muscle strength wassignificantly higher that 50% reduction in training volume(p=0.047, df =18) (Fig. 3).Based on Table 1, it was concluded that there was nosignificant difference between the effects of 75% and 50%reduction of training volume on flexibility level. However,the effect of 50% reduction of the training volume washigher than the effect of 75% reduction of the trainingvolume. (p=0.703, df=18, t=0.387) (Fig. 4).
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