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THE DIALECTICS OF DISCOURSE

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THE DIALECTICS OF DISCOURSE
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  ~ 일 ~ TheDialecticsofDiscourse By Norman Fairclough (1989) Recontextualization, Rescaling and Emphasisby Alelign Aschale April 2013Addis Ababa University    ~ 이 ~ Table of Contents Contents Pages 1. DISCOURSE AND SOCIAL PRACTICES .................................................................................... 삼  2. ORDER OF DISCOURSE ................................................................................................................ 육  3. THE DIALECTICS OF DISCOURSE ............................................................................................ 칠  4. THE CENTRAL CONCEPT OF A KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY AND KNOWLEDGESOCIETY .......................................................................................................................................... 칠  5. THE VIEW OF THE DIALECTICS OF DISCOURSE WITH RESPECT TO LANGUAGE INNEW CAPITALISM .................................................................................................................... 일일  5.1. NEW CAPITALISM .................................................................................................................... 일일  5.2. LANGUAGE IN NEW CAPITALISM ....................................................................................... 일삼  6. CONCLUSION .............................................................................................................................. 일오    ~ 삼 ~ 1.   Discourse and Social Practices    How are CDA & Semiosis related? Critical Discourse Analysis (henceforth, CDA) is basedupon a view of semiosis as an irreducible element of all material social processes (Williams1977).    How do we see social life? We can see social life as interconnected networks of social practices of diverse sorts (economic, political, cultural, family etc).    Why? The reason for centering the concept of social practice is that it allows an oscillation between the perspective of social structure and the perspective of social action and agency both necessary perspectives in social research and analysis (Chouliaraki & Fairclough 1999).    What is social practice? By social practice I mean a relatively stabilised form of socialactivity (examples would be classroom teaching, television news, family meals, medicalconsultations, etc).    What is every practice? Every practice is an articulation of diverse social elements within arelatively stable configuration, always including discourse.    What does every practice include? Every practice includes at least the following elements:    Activities    Subjects, and their social relations    Instruments    Objects    Time and place    Forms of consciousness    Values    Discourse What does dialectically related mean?That is to say, they are differentelements, but not discrete, fully separate, elements.    What is the sense? There is a sense in which each internalizes the others without beingreducible to them.    What are the differences here? So for instance social relations, social identities, culturalvalues and consciousness are in part semiotic, but that does not mean that we theorize andresearch social relations for instance in the same way that we theorize and research language. These elements aredialectically related (Harvey, 1996)  ~ 사 ~ They have distinct properties, and researching them gives rise to distinct disciplines; though itis possible and desirable to work across disciplines in a transdisciplinary way (Fairclough,2000).    So, what is CDA? CDA is analysis of the dialectical relationships between discourse(including language but also other forms of semiosis, e.g. body language or visual images)and other elements of social practices.    What is the particular concern of CDA, in Fairclough ’s Approach ? Its particular concern(in my own approach) is with the radical changes that are taking place in contemporary sociallife, with how discourse figures within processes of change, and with shifts in the relationship between semiosis and other social elements within networks of practices.    Caution! We cannot take the role of discourse in social practices for granted, it has to beestablished through analysis. And discourse may be more or less important and salient in one practice or set of practices than in another, and may change in importance over time.    How does Discourse Figures in Social Practices? Discourse figures in broadly three waysin social practices.    Discourse figures as a part of the social activity within a practice. For instance, part of doing a job (for instance, being a shop assistant) is using language in a particular way; sotoo is part of governing a country.    Discourse figures in representations . Social actors within any practice producerepresentations of other practices, as well as (reflexive) representations of their own practice, in the course of their activity within the practice. They recontextualize other  practices (Bernstein 1990, Chouliaraki & Fairclough 1999). That is, they incorporate theminto their own practice, and different social actors will represent them differentlyaccording to how they are positioned within the practice. Representation is a process of social construction of practices, including reflexive self-construction representations enter and shape social processes and practices.    Discourse Figures in the ways of being, in the Constitution of Identities. Discoursefigures in ways of being, in the constitution of identities for instance the identity of a political leader such as Tony Blair in the UK, Bill Clinton, G.W. Bush and Barak Obamain America, Nickolas Sarcozi in France, Ahmedin Nejad in Iran, Vladimir Putin in Russia,  ~ 오 ~ Meles Zenawi in Ethiopia, Biniam Netanyahu and Arial Sharon in Israel, Xi Jinping inChina, Nelson Mandela in South Africa, and so forth, is partly a semiotically constitutedway of being.    Discourse and Genres. Discourse as part of social activity constitutes genres . Genres arediverse ways of acting, of producing social life, in the semiotic mode. Examples are: everydayconversation, meetings in various types of organisation, political and other forms of interview,and book reviews. It is a way of acting like the military, the family, the bank, the office, theclassroom, the court, the parliament, the conference/summit, the theatre, etc.    Discourse and Representations . Discourse in the representation and self-representation of social practices constitutes discourses (note the difference between discourse as an abstractnoun, and discourse(s) as a count noun). Discourses are diverse representations of social lifewhich are inherently positioned, differently positioned social actors see and represent sociallife in different ways, different discourses.    For instance, the lives of (the):-   Poor -   Disadvantaged-   Immigrants-   Political prisoners-   Females-   Gays and Lesbians-   Addicts-   The Mafia-   Spin and Strong groups, etc.    Discourse and Style? Finally, discourse as part of ways of being constitutes styles for instance the styles of business managers, or political leaders.Social practices networked in a particular way constitute a social order for instance, the emergentneo-liberal global order referred to above, or at more local level, the social order of education in a particular society at a particular time. Such categories of “p eople ” are representedthrough different discourses in the social practices of government, politics, medicine,and social science, and through differentdiscourses within each of these practicescorresponding to different positions of social actors.
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