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The Book of the Torah in Joshua 1 and 23 and in the Deuteronomistic History, in: Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 127 (2015), pp. 412–428.

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In its Deuteronomistic edition, Deuteronomy refers to itself as “the book of the Torah”, written by Moses himself. In Josh 1 and 23, this book is introduced as an element of the subsequent ‘history of Israel’ narrative. Despite other differences,
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  ZAW 2015; 127(3): 412–428 Joachim J. Krause* The Book of the Torah in Joshua 1 and 23 and in the Deuteronomistic History DOI 10.1515/zaw-2015-0022 I As might be expected of the farewell address of a parting leader, Joshua’s speech reported in Jos 23 does double duty. For one thing, Joshua looks back on the epoch under his leadership. As promised to Moses, Yhwh has granted Israel to conquer her land. Not one »word« has failed of »all the good words« that he promised (v. 14). At the same time, however, Joshua looks forward, too. Warning against transgressing Yhwh’s covenant, for otherwise Yhwh will bring upon Israel »all the bad words« and exterminate the people from their land (v. 15–16a),¹ Joshua outlines precisely the ensuing ›history of Israel‹ as presented in the fol-lowing second part of the Deuteronomistic History (DH). Thus, Joshua’s speech serves as the hinge of the DH’s double aetiology of Israel winning and losing her land.² 1  While translating ר ד  in these instances with »thing« rather than »word« would result in a smoother English version, the latter option preserves an important dimension of the Hebrew wording, as the »words« in question are the actual words of blessing and curse which according to Deut 28 serve as sanctions of the covenant. 2  Throughout this paper, English translations follow the New Revised Standard Version with modifications.  Anmerkung:  Paper presented at the session on Jos 23, SBL-AM 2014. Thanks are due to the chairs, C. Nihan and J. Pakkala, for the invitation to speak in this session; to the other speakers, R. Müller, R. Nelson, T. Römer, and R. Klein, as well as G. Hornung and R. Young for stimulating discussions. *Kontakt: Joachim J. Krause,  Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen. joachim.krause@uni-tuebingen.de Angemeldet | joachim.krause@uni tuebingen.de AutorenexemplarHeruntergeladen am | 14.10.15 08:35   The Book of the Torah 413 II Given the current state of affairs, however, the term »Deuteronomistic History« hardly being used anymore without the cautious prefix »so-called«,³ I should make it clear at the outset that by Deuteronomistic History I do mean Deutero-nomistic History. This is, in my view, an exilic composition of Israelite traditions, preserved in the latter books from Deuteronomy through II Kings, wrestling with the catastrophe of 587 BCE.⁴ It is to this work that we owe the srcinal composi-tion of the Joshua story. The following texts, I submit, belong to this Deuterono-mistic Joshua story:⁵ Jos 1; *3–4Opening of the epochJos 6*; 7,2–5a; 8,1–29; 9*; 10; 11; 12*Conquest of the landJos 21,43–45; 22,1–6; 23*; Jud 2,6–10Close of the epoch A true exposition, the prelude in Jos 1 opens with a speech of principal impor-tance (vv. 1–9). Speaking to Joshua, Yhwh addresses the theme of the day: the succession of Moses. He commissions Joshua to take over command and conquer the land, promising the new leader to be with him as he was with his predecessor (vv. 1–6). Pointing out the basis of this promise, Yhwh then goes on to entrust Joshua with the key to a prosperous future in the land by charging him »to act in accordance with all the Torah that my servant Moses commanded you« (v. 7);⁶   3  See the insightful introduction by T. C. Römer, The So-called Deuteronomistic History. A Socio-logical, Historical and Literary Introduction  (London/New York 2007). 4  For the main reasons, see the discussion in E. Blum, »Das exilische deuteronomistische Ge-schichts werk,« in  Das deuteronomistische Geschichtswerk  , ed. H.-J. Stipp, ÖBS 39 (Frankfurt a. M. et al. 2011): 269–294, and the pertinent parts in J. J. Krause,  Exodus und Eisodus. Komposition und Theologie von Josua 1–5  , VT.S 161 (Leiden, 2014), with full bibliography.  5  Krause,  Exodus und Eisodus , 410. 6  As concerns textual criticism, the element הרותה־לכ  in v. 7 must be called into question. The Old Greek does not support it, and in MT the pronominal reference in ונממ  shows an incongruity of gender. Even a variant without »all the Torah«, however, does not lend itself to the interpre-tation proposed by A. B. Ehrlich,  Randglossen zur hebräischen Bibel. Textkritisches, Sprach liches und Sachliches , Vol. 3:  Josua, Richter, I. u. II. Samuelis  (Leipzig, 1910), 2, claiming that rather general instructions (»allgemeine[…] Instruktionen […], die Moses seinem Nachfolger über die Leitung des Volkes gegeben hatte«) were at stake srcinally. Taking into account the immediate sequel featuring the idiomatic phrase »not turning from + neither to the right nor to the left«, this appears quite improbable. According to the extant parallels in Deuteronomistic literature, this phrase is reserved exclusively for obedience to the Torah (see Deut 5,32; 17,20; 28,14; Jos 23,6; Angemeldet | joachim.krause@uni tuebingen.de AutorenexemplarHeruntergeladen am | 14.10.15 08:35  414  Joachim J. Krause »This book of the Torah ( הזה   הרותה   רפס ) shall not depart out of your mouth; you shall meditate on it day and night, so that you may be careful to act in accordance with all that is written in it. For then you shall make your way pros-perous, and then you shall be successful« (v. 8). And indeed, the following account of the conquest of the land presents itself as a faithful execution of this inculcation.⁷Considering the context of this well-structured story, and taking into account that in the DH speeches of the main protagonists who, looking back as well as forward, reflect on the course of history and draw consequences from it, are a typical feature of transitions from one epoch to another,⁸ an address such as the one found in Jos 23 seems quite essential.⁹ II Reg 22,2). On the textual analysis of Jos 1,7, see further M. N. van der Meer, »Textual Criticism and Literary Criticism in Joshua 1:7 (MT and LXX),« in  X Congress of the International Organiza-tion for Septuagint and Cognate Studies Oslo, 1998 , ed. B. A. Taylor, SBLSCS 51 (Atlanta, 2001): 355–371, and recently K. Finsterbusch, »Deuteronomy and Joshua. Torah in the Book of Joshua in Light of Deuteronomy,«  JAJ 3 (2012): 166–196; see also T. B. Dozeman, »The Book of Joshua as an Intertext in the MT and the LXX Canons,« in  Pentateuch, Hexateuch, or Enneateuch? Identi- fying Literary Works in Genesis through Kings , ed. Th. B. Dozeman, Th. Römer and K. Schmid, SBL Ancient Israel and Its Literature 8 (Atlanta, 2011): 185–209, 201, who makes much of the text-critical problem. 7  Considering the ideological provenience of the DH as well as the narrative setting of conquest, it does not come as a surprise that execution of the ban (Deut 20,16–17) is of main concern in this respect, as is obvious from Jos 6,21; 8,26; 10,(1.)28.35.37.39.40; 11,11.12.(14–15); 11,20.21. See R. D. Nelson,  Joshua. A Commentary , OTL (Louisville, Ky, 1997), 46. 8  M. Noth, Überlieferungsgeschichtliche Studien. Die sammelnden und bearbeitenden Geschichts-werke im Alten Testament   (Tübingen, 3 1967), 5f. For a comprehensive study, see J. Nentel, Träger-schaft und Intentionen des deuteronomistischen Geschichtswerks. Untersuchungen zu den Reflex-ionsreden Jos 1; 23; 24; 1 Sam 12 und 1 Kön 8 , BZAW 297 (Berlin, 2000). 9  The brief remark by the narrator in Jos 21,43–45, albeit solemn in tone, would make for an all too short closure; Joshua’s address to the trans-Jordanian tribes in Jos 22,1–6, while also building an inclusio with the opening of the story (see Jos 1,12–18 and 4,12), is devoted to a par-ticular problem; Jud 2,6–10 reports Joshua’s death but no last words of the parting leader. – For Jos 24 as a post-Deuteronomistic insertion, see E. Blum,  Die Komposition der Vätergeschichte , WMANT 57 (Neukirchen-Vluyn, 1984), 45–61; idem, »Der kompositionelle Knoten am Übergang von Josua zu Richter. Ein Entflechtungsvorschlag,« in idem, Textgestalt und Komposition. Exege-tische Beiträge zu Tora und Vordere Propheten , ed. W. Oswald, FAT 69 (Tübingen, 2010): 249–280, 262–274; T. C. Römer,  Israels Väter. Untersuchungen zur Väterthematik im Deuteronomium und in der deuteronomistischen Tradition , OBO 99 (Freiburg/Göttingen, 1990), 320–329; idem, »Deuter-onomium 34 zwischen Pentateuch, Hexateuch und deuteronomistischem Geschichtswerk,«  ZAR  5 (1999): 167–178; T. C. Römer and M. Z. Brettler, »Deuteronomy 34 and the Case for a Persian Hexateuch,«  JBL  119 (2000): 401–419; K. Schmid,  Erzväter und Exodus. Untersuchungen zur dop- pelten Begründung der Ursprünge Israels inner halb der Geschichtsbücher des Alten Testa ments , WMANT 81 (Neukirchen-Vluyn, 1999), 209–230; E. Otto,  Das Deuteronomium im Pentateuch und Angemeldet | joachim.krause@uni tuebingen.de AutorenexemplarHeruntergeladen am | 14.10.15 08:35   The Book of the Torah 415 III Nevertheless, for the longest time a double consensus prevailed according to which Joshua’s speech was held to be both homogeneous and secondary, a liter-ary unit inserted in the course of a Deuteronomistic reworking of the DH’s ori-ginal composition.¹⁰ The recent analysis of Thomas Römer, however, has called into question both assumptions. Drawing on the older observation that the sce-nario of a complete conquest of the land as presented by Joshua in retrospect is contradicted by the caution against remaining peoples voiced in his outlook,¹¹ Römer is able to distinguish two layers in Jos 23, the first of which belongs to the initial DH.¹² According to this analysis, the account of Joshua’s speech srcinally consisted of vv. 1–3.9.11.14b–16a.¹³ While confirming Römer’s thesis in general, the subsequent analysis by Erhard Blum proposes a slightly modified primary layer comprising vv. 1–3.6(?).11.14–16a.¹⁴  Hexateuch. Studien zur Literaturgeschichte von Pentateuch und Hexateuch im Lichte des Deuter-onomiumrahmens , FAT 30 (Tübingen, 2000), passim; R. Achenbach, »Pentateuch, Hexateuch und Enneateuch. Eine Verhältnisbestimmung,«  ZAR  11 (2005): 122–154, 139–153, among others. For a skeptical view, see R. G. Kratz, »Der vor- und der nachpriesterschrift liche Hexateuch,« in  Abschied vom Jahwisten. Die Komposition des Hexateuch in der jüngsten Dis kus sion , ed. J. C. Gertz, K. Schmid and M. Witte, BZAW 315 (Berlin/New York, 2002): 295–323, 299–307. 10  Restated in H. N. Rösel ,    Joshua , Historical Commentary on the Old Testament (Leuven, 2011), 353–359. For a full-blown exposition, see Nentel, Trägerschaft  , 49–139. 11  R. Smend, »Das Gesetz und die Völker. Ein Beitrag zur deuteronomistischen Redaktionsge-schichte,« in  Probleme biblischer Theologie. Gerhard von Rad zum 70. Geburtstag  , ed. H. W. Wolff (München, 1971): 494–509. 12  T. C. Römer, »Das doppelte Ende des Josuabuches: einige Anmerkungen zur aktuellen Dis-kus sion um ›deuteronomistisches Geschichtswerk‹ und ›Hexateuch‹,«  ZAW   118 (2006): 523–548, 531–533; idem, »Book-Endings in Joshua and the Question of the So-Called Deuteronomistic History,« in  Raising Up a Faithful Exegete. Essays in Honor of Richard D. Nelson , ed. K. L. Noll and B. Schramm (Winona Lake, IND, 2010): 87–101, 94–97. For consenting votes, see Blum, »Geschichtswerk«: 287f. n. 70; idem, »Überlegungen zur Kompositionsgeschichte des Josua-buches,« in The Book of Joshua , ed. E. Noort, BEThL 250 (Leuven, 2012): 137–157, 151, and C. Nihan, »The Literary Relationship between Deuteronomy and Joshua. A Reassessment,« in  Deuteronomy in the Pentateuch, Hexateuch, and the Deuteronomistic History , ed. K. Schmid and R. F. Person, FAT II 56 (Tübingen, 2012): 79–114, 100–102; for a critical view, see W. Groß, »Das Richterbuch zwischen deuteronomistischem Geschichtswerk und Enneateuch,« in Geschichts-werk  , ed. H.-J. Stipp (n. 4): 177–205, 189. See further the discussion in C. Frevel, »Das Josua- Palimpsest. Der Übergang vom Josua- zum Richterbuch und seine Konsequenzen für die These eines Deuteronomistischen Geschichtswerks,«  ZAW   125 (2013): 49–71, 59–68. 13  Römer, »Book-Endings«: 94–97. 14  Blum, »Geschichtswerk«: 287f. n. 70. Angemeldet | joachim.krause@uni tuebingen.de AutorenexemplarHeruntergeladen am | 14.10.15 08:35  416  Joachim J. Krause This account allows for the reconstruction of a pattern of speech due to which Joshua’s farewell address presents itself virtually as a Deuteronomy en miniature :¹⁵ v. 3You have seen all that Yhwh your God has done to all these nations for your sake, for it is Yhwh your God who has fought for you.Recollection of Yhwh’s attention as experienced by Israelv. 6Therefore be very steadfast to observe and do all that is written in the book of the Torah of Moses, turning aside from it neither to the right nor to the le.Parenetic inculcation to heed the book of the Torahv. 11Be very careful to love Yhwh your God.… and the first commandmentvv. 14–16aBehold, I am about to go the way of all the earth, and you know with all your heart and with all your soul, all of you, that not one word has failed of all the good words that Yhwh your God promised concerning you; all have come to pass for you, not one of these words has failed. But just as all the good words that  Yhwh your God promised concerning you have been fulfilled for you, so Yhwh will bring upon you all the bad words, until he has destroyed you from this good land that Yhwh your God has given you, if you transgress the covenant of Yhwh your God, which he enjoined on you, and go and serve other gods and bow down to them.Presentation of the alternative of blessing and curse with reference to the actual »words« of the Torah The successor of Moses leaves his legacy in the form of a covenant speech which in essence is but one great reference to the fundamental covenant speech of Moses in Deuteronomy – a fitting closure of the epoch indeed.Yet for most readers this reconstruction will raise a question regarding v. 6. Does this verse, prominently as it does featuring the book of the Torah, really belong to the srcinal composition of the DH? Römer, for his part, attributes it to a later addition.¹⁶ That is by no means a particular position. For most scholars, ascribing Jos 23,6 to the DH’s srcinal composition is simply out of the question.¹⁷ A rare dissenting vote, Blum allows at least for the possibility, noting, however, 15  For the following reconstruction, see Krause,  Exodus und Eisodus , 87; cf. Blum, »Geschichts-werk«: 287f. n. 70. Proposing a similar pattern of speech, Römer, »Ende«: 534, speaks of a »Deu-teronomium en miniature «. 16  Römer, »Ende«: 532. 17  See e.g. the succinct comment on v. 6 in Rösel,  Joshua , 357. Angemeldet | joachim.krause@uni tuebingen.de AutorenexemplarHeruntergeladen am | 14.10.15 08:35
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