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TERRORISM AND THE CHALLENGES OF FOOD SECURITY IN LAKE CHAD REGION: A STUDY OF BOKO HARAM (2009 – 2017

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TERRORISM AND THE CHALLENGES OF FOOD SECURITY IN LAKE CHAD REGION: A STUDY OF BOKO HARAM (2009 – 2017
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   i TERRORISM AND THE CHALLENGES OF FOOD SECURITY IN LAKE CHAD REGION: A STUDY OF BOKO HARAM (2009  –   2017) BY ZAINAB IBRAHIM KOLO PGA/16/10/04/08821 DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE SCHOOL OF POSTGRADUATE STUDIES, UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI, IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF MASTERS IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS (MIR) NOVEMBER, 2017   ii CERTIFICATION we certify that this dissertation en titled “ Terrorism and the Challenges of Food Security in Lake Chad Region: A Study of Boko Haram (2009  –   2017) ” has been duly presented  by Zainab Ibrahim Kolo with identification number PGA/16/10/04/08821, to the Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Science, University of Maiduguri, and has been read and approved by the examiner. Supervisor Head of Department Sign:_______________ Sign:_______________  Name: Dr. Haruna Ayuba Dr. Mala Mustapha Date:_______________ Date:_______________ Having met the stipulated requirement for the award of Masters in International Relations (MRI), this dissertation has been accepted by the School of Postgraduate Studies, University of Maiduguri. Dean, School of Postgraduate Studies Sign:______________ Name: Professor Jibrilla Dahiru Aminu Date:_______________   iii DEDICATION This research work is dedicated to my beloved father, late Alhaji Ibrahim Kolo may Almighty Allah (SWT) bless his external repose with his forgiveness, mercy light and comfort and mother Hajja Hauwa Kolo may Almighty Allah give her long live and prosperity.   iv ACKNOWLEDGMENT All praise be to Almighty Allah (SWT) for seeing me through my studies and for guiding and protecting my life. I wish to express my sincere gratitude to my project supervisor Dr. Haruna Ayuba for guidance, patience and understanding. I most acknowledge the valuable assistance offered to me by my parent both morally, spiritually and materially towards my education, may Almighty Allah grant them eternal blessing. My sincere gratitude goes to the head of the department Dr. Mala Mustapha and the entire staff of the department, I thank them all for their assistance. My appreciation goes to Halima, Aisha, Zainab, Hauwa, Umaima, F\atima, Bakyari, Mhabuk, Yesmin, Farha, Hawud, and Fati thanks for the love and care. Words alone cannot express my hearty gratitude to Aisha, Aishatu and Haruna Ibrahim Kolo for their help and advice during all these years of my studies. May Allah in his infinity mercy crown their efforts with endless bless. My sincere gratitude goes to my supervisor Dr. Haruna Ayuba and head of department Dr. Mala Mustapha may Allah crown their effort with eternal blessing, thanks are due to them all.   v Abstract  Terrorist activities in the Lake region of Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon, have impacted negatively on the security, socio-political and economic situations in the region. This study investigates the evolution of insurgency and the factors leading to its growth in the region. It also examines its socio-political, economic and security implications. Nigeria, in the centre of the imbroglio, has had no respite from terrorist activities for a long time. Boko Haram has carried out many gun attacks and bombings in many strategic places, including the United Nations  building in Abuja, the federal capital city. There have been similar attacks in Cameroon, Chad and Niger, including a massive attack in Bosso in the Niger Republic with 26 soldiers killed in 2016. This concludes that the wave of terrorism and challenges of food security in Lake Chad region, the sub-region has a connection to the wave of global terrorism. To stem the tide of insurgency in the sub-region, this research work recommends that governments at all levels should create enabling environment for investment and industrial growth. It also suggests that security of lives and properties should be given utmost priority. This study examines the evolution, manifestations, and course of the Boko Haram insurgency in the sub-region, exploring the implications for national and international security, socioeconomic order, political stability, and sustainable development of the area. It will suggest ways to curtail the Boko Haram insurgency and probable future insurgencies in the sub-region. Various Scholars account for the actual date of the evolution of Boko Haram terrorist group. However, the sect came to  prominence in 2009 following the death of its leader, Mohammed Yusuf in police custody. Aside  from the p olice act and Mohammed Yusuf’s death, poverty, unemployment, lack of development, high level of illiterates, unkempt electoral promises are identified as other reasons for the rise of  Boko Haram insurgency. This study involves determination of socio-political and economic impact of Boko Haram insurgency on Lake Chad basin. To achieve this, mixed research method was employed in the study because both primary and secondary data are used. Many factors can be adduced as driving force that motivates Boko Haram activities in the region such as poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, under-development/education defiance region and neglects by  government. Finding in the study shows that lack of government support for armed forces and low moral; lack of government political will to fight the insurgency; political interest all contribute in recent time to the rise of terrorist activities in Lake Chad. Finding revealed that the increase in Boko Haram activities in recent time in the region have negatively impact on the  socio political/economic activities and these is due partly to increase in terrorist financing. The  study suggests therefore that government ability in Lake Chad basin to cut the sources of terrorist finance will significantly affect Boko Haram activities and attacks. Food security in  Lake Chad region has come under threats since the emergence of series of attacks by a terrorist  sect called ‘Boko Haram’ (BH). This study examined the various ways in which the activities of  BH have threatened food security in Lake Chad region, the capital of Borno State in the north east of Nigeria. The study was conducted through a field research that involved administration of questionnaire, interviews, observation and elicitation. The data analysis revealed that the BH actions have affected the agricultural sector. Recommendations were made to ease the chain of  food supply.
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