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Running Head: CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE The Prevalence and Determinant Factors of Child Sexual Abuse of Female students in Gondar Town High Schools

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Running Head: CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE The Prevalence and Determinant Factors of Child Sexual Abuse of Female students in Gondar Town High Schools
    Running Head: CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE The Prevalence and Determinant Factors of Child Sexual Abuse of Female students in Gondar Town High Schools Kelemu Fenta Gebeyehu University of Gondar Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities Department of Sociology and Social Work Advisor: Tsehay Jemberu (PhD) January, 2012 Gondar- Ethiopia   Acknowledgments I should acknowledge the debts accrued in the course of conducting and writing-up this thesis research work with a solemn thank-you to several persons who deserve mention for their support. Without the fruitful contributions of these people, this thesis would not have been completed. My first gratitude goes to Dr. Tsehay Jemberu, my advisor, for his encouraging and generous intellectual and practical support in which in doing this thesis I have gained constructive comments. I am indebted to female students, school directors, counselors and unit leaders of Fusillades, Debreselam, kings and Edget Feleg high schools whose hospitality and friendliness made me feel at ease during the data collection, especially to my informants who let me learn about their sexual experiences in the school. I owe a great debt to Ato Ephrem Tiruneh, W/rt Gojam Bogale, Ato Degarege Yazachew, Ato Endashaw Aynetu, Ato Misaye and Ato Sewnet Mekonen and to many friends who have contributed to this work in different ways and for their encouragement in a very difficult time, and for their beliefs in my right to intellectual activities. I would like to acknowledge the support of the staff of the Department of sociology and social work, who provided intellectual support for my thesis research work. I would also like to acknowledge University of Gondar for funding my MA thesis research work expenses. Finally, this thesis is dedicated to My Parents whose contribution cannot be explained well with this short paper.  CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE 3 Abstract Child sexual abuse is one of the major problems of children that affect their health and security. Specifically, as various (regional, national and global) studies indicate the prevalence of the  problem in primary and secondary school environment as caused by different individual and contextual factors. But due to different reasons in Gondar town high schools the problem of child sexual abuse specifically its prevalence and determinant factors are not yet well stated and studied. The main objective of this study is to explore the prevalence and identify major determinant factors of child sexual abuse of female students in Gondar town high schools. In realizing this objective across-sectional study (July2011-January 2012) was conducted using both quantitative and qualitative research methods. The quantitative method, as the dominant method, was used to collect data about the prevalence and major determinant factors of child sexual abuse from 335 randomly selected high school female students in the town of Gondar. The data collection was done by standardized self administered questionnaires that was analyzed with descriptive and explanatory (Binary logistic regression model) statistics. Whereas the qualitative method, as a supportive method, was used to supplement the dominant quantitative method by collecting data using focus group discussions and key informant interviews. The result of this study revealed that the problem is prevalent in the study area in the form of sexual kissing (9%), verbal sexual insult and showing films (6.9%), the combination of sexual kissing ,touching and showing sexual genital parts( 5.7%) and sexual insult (5.4%). as a result of emotional disturbance , absence/shortage of education , measures taken against the abusers , counseling services , gender club, student maladaptive behavior and other factors. In conclusion, the result of this study revealed that the problem is prevalent (49.6 %) in Gondar town high schools as a result of major socio-demographic, individual and situational factors.    Key words : Sexual abuse, prevalence, determinant factors, high school, mixed method, logistic regression and cultural theory  CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE 4 Chapter One 1.   Introduction 1.1. Background of the Study Today’s children who are socialized in a safe and healthy environment are the adults of tomorrow and the bases for the future development of a country. Unless children are  properly socialized, there is a chance to become challenging for their personal and societal development. In this regard, schools are among the institutions entrusted with the responsibility of providing children with healthy environment and basic information. Schools are responsible agents to provide children with primary socialization that is essential for the healthy continuation of the social harmony and their own personal,  physical, emotional, social and cognitive development (Gobena, 1998). Though schools play great roles for the proper socialization of students, they are affected  by different internal and external factors such as; social, economic, political, legal and spiritual ones (Pettersson, 2001). A social institution, like school, which lacks the necessary inputs that are required for the healthy execution of its activities, faces a high  probability of confronting inadequacies in fulfilling the social expectation directed to it (WHO, 2002). One of the challenges of school environment is the presence of various forms of child maltreatment/abuse (Lee, 1996). Child maltreatment refers to behaviors towards a child which are outside the norms of conduct and entail a substantial risk of causing physical,  psychological or emotional harm. Basically, it can take different forms which include labor, emotional, physical, psychological and sexual abuses (Bolen, 2002). Sexual abuse,  perhaps the worst form of exploiting children, ranges from simple touching to penetration and involves engaging a child in sexual act including fondling, rape and exposing a child to other sexual activities ( Shakeshaft,2004).  CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE 5 Many factors may play a role in the sexual abuse and exploitation of children and youth at different levels. At the societal level, the dynamics of socialization as well as society’s collective history of denial of child sexual abuse and exploitation may contribute to environments in which opportunities for abuse and exploitation can occur (Bold, 2008). Therefore, this study was mainly dealt with exploring the prevalence and investigating the determinant factors for sexual abuse of female students in some selected high school in Gondar Town.
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