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    Wild and ultivated Lupins From the l ropics to the Poles Proceedings of the lOth International lupin Conference laugarvatn Iceland 19 24 June 2002  56 POSSIBILITY OF SELECTION AND CULTIVATION OF NARROW-LEAFED LUPIN IN FINLAND B.S. Kurlovich1, S. Hovinen 2, M. HyoveUi2, J. Heinanen and N. Kulakov OY International North Express, Leppiilaaksontie 5-1, 52420 Pellosniemi, Finland. 2 Boreal Plant Breeding, Myllytie 8, Fin -31600, Jokioinen, Finland. Corresponding author s email: ABSTRACT The purpose of this research was to study opportunities for breeding and cultivation of narrow-leafed lupin Lupinus angustifolius L. in Finland. The study was conducted with determinate cultivars and lines of narrow-leafed lupin. Our research bas shown that early forms of L angustifolius are suitable for breeding and cultivation on sandy soils in the south of Finland. An important condition for successful growth of lupins is inoculation with Rbizobia, especially in regions where lupins are being cultivated for the first time. KEYWORDS Lupinus angustifolius L., determinate branching, heredity, eco-geographical conditions, GxE interaction. INTRODUCTION Investigators and fanners in Finland have not shown an interest in growing annual lupin species given the location of he country, close to the Arctic Circle and the short plant growing season. Valle (1938, 1941), Pitkanen (1939), and Anis7.eWSki (1993) showed that the cultivation of narrow-leafed lupin L. angusti,folius) and even yellow lupin L. luteus L. was possible in Finland in good seasons, on sandy soils. More opportunities for the cultivation of his crop have arisen from the breeding of earlier, determinate branching cultivars. The results of our studies on narrow-leafed lupin in Finland are presented in this paper. MATERIALS AND MEmODS The objective of this study was to investigate determinate branched cultivars and lines of narrow-leafed lupin: Ladny from Russia, Mut-1 from Poland, Lanedeks-1 and Pershatsvet from Belarus and early lines and hybrids created from them. Determi nate cultivars were crossed with the indeterminate lines: Nemchinovsky 846 and Tnnir-1 from Russia, Mirela from Poland and lliyarie from Australia. Before sowing all seed samples were checked for purity and were made into pure lines. All observations were made using the - same methods (Kurlovich t al., 1995). Parental accessions and hybrids were tested at all sites at 30 plants m· 2 ). The main focus of he investigation was the branching pattern and the stability of the determinate growth habit at the different locations. Only uniform early lines were selected for the final stage of theresearchinFinland TheywerefromtheFs.u· Fourreplicates were used for testing under Finnish conditions. Over the different years the sowing date was from April 20 to May 15 and harvest dates ranged from August 20 to September 15. All cultivars and hybrids were assessed from 1986 to 1998 on plots of 1-2 m 2 in contrasting environments. In Russia plants were spring sown near St Petersburg on the experimental fields of he Pushkin Laboratories ofVIR (Leningrad Province, 58 °N. on a sodic-podmlic soil; in the Ukraine in spring near Kiev (Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Arable Fanning, about 50 °N in the non-black-soil, and in the autumn in the humid subtropics of Abkhazia (Gulripsh Settlement, former Sukhumi Experimental Station ofVIR, atabout42 °N. Details of his work are given in Kurlowicz (1992); Kurlovich t al. (1995, 2002) and K.urlovich and Ivanova (2000). Parental lines and the most productive, early, stable hybrids were tested in spring sowings from 1995-2001 in Finland, near Pellosniemi (Mikkeli Province, 61 °N) on a sandy soil Seed sown at Pellosniemi was inoculated with commercial strain 363A of Bradyrhizobium sp. Lupinus) produced by the All Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Microbiology. Seven new strains of nodule bacteria developed by the All-Russian Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology were tested in glass house experiments on two lupin varieties (Nemchinovsky 846 from Russia, and Yandee from Australia). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION As a result of the hybridiz.ation stable, determinate lines of narrow-leafed lupin were selected The total number of ines was 65 in the first stage of testing in Finland (1995-1997). Subse quently the number of ines was reduced to 10 by rejection, death from plant diseases or failure to mature. The results of he testing in Finland (near Pellosniemi, about 61 °N) on a sandy soil following seed inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. Lupinus are shown in Table 1. The best selected lines were superior to the parents in both early maturity and productivity. Maturity of spring sown seed (May) of he best lines on sandy soils was the end of August to the beginning of September, before the autumn drop in temperature. However, on the clay soils seed did not mature before the onset of autumn cold An important condition for successfully growing narrowleafed lupin in Finland is inoculation with nodule bacteria especially in regions where lupins are being cultivated forthe first /NE. van Santen and GD. Hill (eds). Wtld and Cultivated Lupins fium the Tropics to the Poles. Proceedings of he 10th International Lupin Conference, Laugarvatn Iceland, 19-24 June 2002. International LupinAssociation, Canterbury, New Zealand. ISBN 0-86476-153-8.  PROCEEDINGS lOTH INTERNATIONAL LUPIN CONFERENCE Table 1. The characteristics of the parents of narrow-leafed lupin and the constant lines created on their basis (Pellosniemi-Finland, site wi1h sandy mild soils and inoculation of seed by nodule bacteria, 1995-2001 ). Name Origin, Duration of period from planting to Mass of initial source maturing {dal'.sl seeds Average Min. Max. V, gplanf 1) Parents Ladny Russia 90 80 100 15.4 20-22 Pershatsvet Belarus 103 86 113 9.2 21-24 Mut-1 Poland No ripened Lanedeks-1 Belarus 105 96 115 14.8 18-20 Nemchinovsky 846 Russia 112 105 120 12.5 23-26 N-846) Mire/a Poland 110 100 120 15.2 24-27 Illyarie Australia No ripened Best constant lines Fu 2) VIR 1 ang Ladny x Pershatsvet 85 80 90 9.3 22-23 VIR2 ang Pershatsvet x Mire/a 88 80 96 11.2 24-26 VIR3 ang Ladny x Illyarie 88 80 95 12.3 23-26 VIR4 ang Ladny x N-846 90 80 99 15.0 23-25 VIR5 ang Ladny x N-846 88 80 95 12.1 23-26 VIR6 ang LadnyxMut-1 90 80 100 15.2 24-27 VIR 7 ang Ladny x N-846 88 80 95 12.3 23-26 VIR8 ang Lanedeks x N-846 98 90 105 12.5 20-22 VIR9ang Ladny x Pershatsvet 86 80 91 9.2 24-28 VIR lOang Lanedeks x Illyarie 99 90 103 11.3 21-25 57 time. n control plots uninoculated) plants of all lines had no it is important to create highly complementmy symbiotic rela nodules. Frequently 1hese plants were weaker and stunted. tionships between 1he lupin plant and 1he bacteria to increase Plantings, which were inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. plant response to inoculation. This could be achieved by Lupinus, differed considerably from 1he control plants. The searching for new strains of nodule bacteria, which match plants had a greater number of smoo1h nodules between 2 and 7 specific lupin varieties, and by identifying plant genotypes, mm in diameter and located evenly over their whole root system which are responsive to inoculation. Detailed infonnation on this The number of nodules present differed from plant to plant but all can be found in Kurlovich et al 2000). treated plants bore numerous nodules. The results show 1hat inoculating plants wi1hBradyrhizobium sp.Lupinus in all cases 10 r . lead to increased seed yield BNemchinovsky 846 llYandee Seven new strains of nodule bacteria developed at the Institute of Agricultural Microbiology were tested in an addi- tional greenhouse experiment The strains were tested on two lupin varieties. The highest efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen l fixation for the regionally adapted Russian cv. Nemchinovsky 6 846 was shown by 1he new strains 1604, 1630 and 1607 strains of Bradyrhizobium lupini Fig. 1). With cv. Yandee, from -  (; Australia, 1he highest efficiency of nitrogen fixation was shown 4 by strains 1604 and 1630. Their use gave a 1 5 to 2.0 fold g increase in accumulation of otal plant chy matter. This WOik showed 1here were, significant differences in 1he 2 response of 1he various lupin lines to inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. Lupinus Most of 1he accessions were highly responsive to inoculation with commercial strains of o Bradyrhizobium sp. Lupinus and 1hese increased plant DM 1604 1630 1607 1625 1610 1613 1635 Control yield The reduced effect of Bradyrhizobium sp. Lupinus on Strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. Lupinus ) some of the accessions can be explained by a mismatch Fig. 1. The effect of inoculation of L. angustifolius cvs. between 1he bacterial strain used and 1he plant genotype. Thus, Nemchinovsky 846 and Y andee w i1h different strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. Lupinus.  58 PROCEEDINGS lOTH INTERNATIONAL LUPIN CONFERENCE Boreal Plant Breeding, in Jokioinen, bas tested cv. Pershatsvet, from Belarus for some years. The srcinal aim was to grow 2 ha to ob1ain protein rich feed for pigs. The Agricultural Research Center located near Boreal Plant Breeding was inter est eel in obtrining a protein source for organic pig production. These investigations are ongoing. Boreal Plant Breeding research established that cv. Pershatsvet did not grow well in the clay soils like 1hose in Jokioinen. Secondly, because the soils did not contain Rbizobial strains, which the lupins needed, seed must be inoculated with Rbizobium before sowing. The year 2001 was the first time lupins were grown on a lighter soil Weeds have been a problem in our lupin experiments. We cannot use a herbicide for weed control to grow organic lupins. Because cv. Pershatsvet is short, competitive weeds can cover the lupins and reduce seed yield Boreal Plant Breeding research bas conformed that cv. Pershatsvet must be sown early in Finland because it is late maturing and growth can be limited in cool growing seasons. Secondly, it must be grow on sandy soils. Animals like bare and roe deer eagerly eat the lupins. Our experiments have regularly been eaten and trials have been destroyed every year. n large areas, seed yield bas varied from 1 to 2.5 Mg ha-  • The cv. Pershatsvet contains 0.03 % alkaloids and is thus a sweet lupin. The results of our studies on detenninate branching narrow leafed lupin lines and cultivates suggest that the phenotypic expression of determinate branching is influenced by the geno type, the environment and their interaction. Thus the con1nbution of hese factors may differ in the different accessions. The most stable detenninate branching was in the Ladny and Pershatsvet The effect of he environment on detenninate branching in these accessions was minimal These accessions are being widely used for breeding in Belarus, Gennany, Latvia Lithuania, Poland, Russia, and the Ukraine as a source of early-maturity, thezmal and photoperiod stability. As shown in Table 1, Ladny and Pershatsvet have potential for the growing conditions in Scandinavia Their use in selection has allowed the creation of earlier genotypes that ripen even under conditions experienced in Finland These genotypes are a potential valuable source for finther selection. These studies again have confirmed that in producing new cultivars of agricultural plants there is a need to select for the growing conditions of he crop. To produce lupin cultivars with broad ecological plasticity, use was made of initial genetic material, which showed stability under testing in con1rasting environments. Eco-geographical investigations make it possible to create valuable material through hybridization of forms with different charact.ers. This allows trangressive fonns to be ob1ained in the character is expressed at a higher level than in the parental limes. This work has shown, that early flowering, detenninate branching forms of L. angustifolius are suitable for growing on the sandy soils in the south of Finland and possibly in other Scandinavian countries. Because of his we believe it is expedient to start systematic breeding of narrow-leafed lupin in Finland The cvs. Ladny, Pershatsvet and material created from them have potential for breeding for sub-Arctic conditions. For successful growing it is important to inoculate the seed with Rhizobium, especially in regions where lupin are being cultivated for the first time. LITERATURE CITED Anis7.ewski T. 1993. Lupine: a potential crop in Finland Studies on the ecology, productivity and quality of upinus ssp. PhD thesis SUDlIDalY Joensuuu, 50p. Kmlovicb, B.S., and 0 1 Ivanova 2000. Genetic and enviromnen1al influences on branching in narrow-leafed lupin Lupinus angustifolius L.). The International Academy Vestnik, (April 2000), St-Petersburg, 5:4-13. Kurlovicb, B.S., SJ. Rep'ev, L.G. Shchelko, V.1 Budanova, M V. Pelrova, T.V. Buravtseva, AK. Samkevicb, L.T. Kartuz.ova T.G. Alexandrova, T.E. Teplyakova, and L.K. Ma1ysh. 1995. Theoreti cal basis of plant breeding. Vol 111. The gene bank and breeding of grain legmnes (lupine, vetch soya and bean), St Petersburg, VIR,438p. Kmlovicb, B.S., L.T. Kartuz.ova BM. Cheremisov, TA Emeljanenko, LA. 'Ilkhonovicb, AP. Kownyakov, and SA Tchedrova. 2000. Evaluation of he biological nitrogen-fixing ability of upin Lupinus L.). Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter, Rome, Italy, 123: 68-77. Kurlowicz, B.S. 1992. Dziedzi=ie si cechy detenninaj cei spoc6b rozgal Bziania si u lubinu wskolistnego Lupinus angustifolius L.). Mater. konf Genetika 2000 . Krakow, 1992: 106. Pitldinen, E. 1939.Lupiinien viljelystii. Helsigin yliopisto. Tutkielma Vale, 0 1938. ~ suoritetuista ymppiiyskokeista. Lupiinikokeet Siemenjulkaisu. Tammisto. Vale, 0 1941. Sininenjakeltainenrehulupiini Karjatalous, 4:1-7.
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