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Political & Economic Systems

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  Social 30 Topic A:Ideologies and democracy Notes Political and Economic Systems- Notes Topic A is called Political and Economic Systems  Covers these systems in theory and practice  Often the theory and practice don’t correspond (e.g. Soviet communism and Marxism not the same) Politics  is concerned with decision-making for society: the creation of legislation , and the execution and interpretation of those L!S that regu ate society. #t a so inc udes a of the processes invo ved, inc uding compromise, coercion, negotiation etc.  $x.% &he government of  'erta has threatened to ignore the federa gay marriage aw (dea s with aws and decisions to 'e made regarding those aws)  $x. &he Supreme Court ru ed that the parent’s right to discip ine a chi d as they see fit supercedes any Charter right of chi dren, as ong as reasona' e force* is used. Economics  is concerned with the production, distri'ution and consumption of goods. #n modern societies, this entai s LAND, LAB! and #AP$TAL .  $x.%  +ord company moves its operation to Mexico in order to ower production a'our costs and, therefore, price of a +ord car.  $x.  &he government announced a p an to s%&sidi'e  (pay part of the cost of) daycare for ow income parents. $( $DEL)$ES  (Chapters % and  in #deo ogies  rd  edition) $deologies are ways of thin-ing regarding po itica or economic organiation 'ased on -ey &eliefs or *al%es    Often genera ied as 'eing a contin%%m or spectr%m  'etween collecti*ism (a 'e ief in the  greater, co ective good  ) and indi*id%alism ('e iefs centered on the individua good   or good of the one)  Social 30 Topic A:Ideologies and democracy Notes Basic spectr%m of *al%es and &eliefs: +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ $nter*entionism &y go*ernment $ndi*id%alism#ollecti*ism Personal li&erty#ooperation and e.%ality#ompetition and freedom Philosophical /ays of thinking on the nat%re of the indi*id%al:  how we see the nat%re of the indi*id%al  inf uences our ideo ogica choices and the systems used 'y groups/  Thomas 0o&&es and the need for strong a%thority:  saw man as inherent y 'ad and needing firm aws to -eep order. 0e ieved that men were genera y 'rutish and shou d su'mit to the wisdom of certain en ightened e ites. 0e ieved in a%thoritarian systems  (strong authority), in particu ar enlightened monarchy .  1ohn Locke and the need for f%ndamental rights:  saw man as inherent y neutra , a ta'u a rasa*, 'ut capa' e of 'eing educated1informed and ma-ing decisions that 'est suited him1her. Society created a socia contract with their government and wi ing y gave up some natura rights in exchange for order. Certain rights he fe t, were ina iena' e/ the right to life, li&erty and property(  po itica i'era , he 'e ieved in an informed electorate  and limited democracy(  1(1( o%ssea% and the general /ill:  saw man as inherent y good and governments and socia order as corrupting. 2espised traditiona government as oppressive and se f serving. 0e ieved that civi society shou d fo ow the genera wi * of the masses. (a sort of ma3ority ru esconcept) &he responsi'i ity of government* was to imp ement and enforce the genera wi of the peop e4 in other words the citiens wou d 'e re ative y free of governmenta restrictions other than thosethe citien agreed to.  Social 30 Topic A:Ideologies and democracy Notes  Adam Smith and free market ideals / saw man as essentia y se f5serving. n economic li&eral , he fe t that economies wou d function 'est when individua ’s had the  i'erty* to pursue their persona interests and, i-e Loc-e, 'e ieved governments shou d imit their intervention to -eeping order and sta'i ity.  2ontes.%ie% and separation of po/ers / saw the necessity of governmenta forms that separated power into three separate 'odies to perform the  functions of government : to legislate the legislati*e3 to 4%dge the 4%dicial and to e5ec%te the e5ec%ti*e(  &his wou d avoid concentration of powers which eads to a'uses. &his theory was at the heart of the merican repu' ic with it’s e ected executive.+rom these views on po itica 5economic organiation came other ideo ogies derived from this spectrum/ li&eralism, socialism, conser*atism, fascism , comm%nism(#lassifying and ordering ideologies /ith spectr%msSpectr%m 67: Attit%de to/ards change in society from 78 th  cent%ry +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++  adicals Li&erals 2oderates #onser*ati*es eactionary (instant1(rapid) (gradua ) (status 6uo)(return to past order)vio ent)7roponents/  2ar59Lenin o%ssea%Locke92illB%rke 0itler92%ssolini  Social 30 Topic A:Ideologies and democracy Notes Spectrum 8/ Le*el of go*ernmental a%thority Totalitarian A%thoritarianism ep(Democracy P%re Dem( Anarchism $nter*entionism9 $ndi*id%alism#ollecti*ism0o&&esLocke o%ssea% +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Spectr%m 6: Le*el of go*ernment inter*ention in the prod%ction, cons%mption and distri&%tion of goods economic system  9999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999  #omm%nism SocialismLi&eralism;elfare capitalism P%re capitalism Command or :ov’t Mixed economy Capita ism with a Litt e to no gov’t7 anned econ. ;edistri'utionSafety net intervention or Of wea th ownership <( 2ar51(S( 2ill <eynes A( Smith <.0 0ecause conser*atism  is 'ased on the stat%s .%o , and 'ecause li&eralism  evo ved over time, today/  Neo-conser*ati*es  (new conservatives) defend the economic status 6uo of private property and capita ism i.e. against government intervention in the economy. &hese are CLSS#CL L#0$;L idea s.  2odern li&erals  (new i'era s)   argue for some government interventionto protect against the i side effects of capita ism (unemp oyment, poverty) and are often ca ed !$L+;$ C7#&L#S&S.
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