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Physiological factors and accuracy of free throw in Basketball

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Abstract Purpose: The main purpose of this research in studding the effect of some physiological factors on accuracy of free throw in Basketball. Material and methods: 20 Basketball’s men selection selective in Mazandaran region with mean = 21.4 ±
  1 Physiological factors and accuracy of free throw in Basketball   Shahandeh, M Mohammad Shahandeh, PHD of L. Orbeli Institute of Physiology, NAS of Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia Abstract Purpose:  The main purpose of this research in studding the effect of some physiological factors on accuracy of free throw in Basketball. Material and methods:   20 Basketball’s men selection selective in Mazandaran region with mean = 21.4 ± 3.2 and the experiment of paying 7.6 ± 4.5 years. The group have been chosen as samples randomly and classified in 2 groups of controlled and experimental groups. The experimental group has performed the fatigue protocol training on HARWARD test. And blood lactate measured by laboratory. The pre test of batten free throw in two groups was measured and post test of batten free throw was the same. Physiological factors such as: high blood lactate, high heart rate and high blood pressure. Results:  Two groups that were analyzed and high blood pressure. Two groups that were analyzed and compared by spss software univariate Analyzed of variance test procedure. The results research shown insignificant (  = 0.05) effect was observed on accuracy in batten free throw Basketball. Discussion and conclusion:  Research shows that the variables in the basketball free throw is not enough to conclude that fatigue can be a factor influencing the accuracy is the basketball free throw. Probably the thing that most contribute to the free throw psychological factors -  psychological, players, games stressful conditions, including conditions in the hall of audience, and heat is the humidity that should be investigated in future studies. Key word: shot free throw, blood lactate concentration, high heart rate and high blood pressure.   Corresponding Author:  Mohammad Shahandeh, Educates University of Tehran, Mazandarn,  Iran.Tel:00989375440751.  Post address:   L. Orbeli Institute of Physiology, NAS of Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia Tel: 00374-94134770 Email address: mhmmdshhndh@yahoo.com    2 Introduction Basketball is a sport that has undergone quite radical changes in the past decade. Coaches believe that the changes to the rules in May 2000, which consist of shortening the attack time from 30 to 24 s and the time allowed to cross the median line from 10 to 8 s as well as subdividing the duration of play into four 10-min quarters instead of two 20-min halves, have probably modified the tactical and physical demands of the game. Thus, identifying the physiological requirements of modern basketball is essential to prescribe and develop an appropriate physical training  programmed. Plasma lactate determinations show a large contribution   from the anaerobic energy systems towards the end of the halves.   Analysis by playing position shows the greater cardiac and metabolic   efforts in which guards were involved compared with centers.   Reduced performance occurs during the second and fourth quarters   for players in all positions. Finally, as this study is the   first to focus on men’s basketball competition when  playing under the "8  –  24 s rule", further investigations are recommended   to confirm these findings. Fatigue is a very complex conception, involving both psychological and a host of physiological factors. Consequently, fatigue should never be viewed as a single entity or process. Rather it is a highly complex phenomenon, comprising numerous different components and acting at multiple sites within both the central nervous system and the muscle. Fatigue is especially important in a sporting context and in a team game such as basketball; fatigue may be the determining factor  between winning and losing (1, 2). The study of fatigue relative to performance of different skills has long been a subject of practical and scientific interest to strength and conditioning  professionals, trainers, coaches and sport scientists. Research to date however, has provided conflicting and often contradictory findings partly due to inconsistent experimental designs and  procedures used (10). Partly attribute the conflicting results to poor control of the participant's fitness and/or strength levels and the intensity of administered fatigue. This picture is made even more complex by the fact that fatigue is difficult to define. Currently, there is a plethora of literature relating to expert-novice differences across a wide range of sports and research topics. Clearly evident from this literature is that there are critical  3 characteristics and underlying differences that separate expert and novice players in sport. Experts have demonstrated more effective anticipation than novices (3, 12). In basketball, the above characteristics are fundamental in discriminating between expert and novice players (13). In terms of fatigue, according to there are two different patterns. Firstly, the pattern being the effect of short-term effort of high-intensity and secondly, the pattern as a result of long-term exercise. To date, anaerobic type work has not been used much to induce fatigue in studies examining the effect of fatigue on performance of sports skills. In most situations, fatigue has  been assessed in static contractions, engaging a restricted group of muscles acting on one single  joint and hence the application of findings to sporting situations is limited. It is also evident from the literature that little attention has been paid to the evaluation of fatigue in the field setting during dynamic contractions involving larger groups of muscles (4, 5, 7). In other study reviews research sourced through sport science and medical journal databases that have attempted to quantify the effects of fatigue on tennis performance. Specific physiological  perturbations and their effects on common performance measures, such as stroke velocity and accuracy, are discussed. Current literature does not convincingly support anecdotal assertions of overt performance decrements during prolonged matches or matches played during unfavorable (e.g. hot and humid) environmental conditions. That can be achieved through the incorporation of multifaceted performance assessment (i.e. perceptual-cognitive and biomechanical measurement approaches), the improvement of measurement sensitivity in the field setting and through the use of experimental settings that accurately simulate the energetic demands of match  play (8). Methods Measuring the concentration of lactate in the blood from the vein by sitting in the pre-test and  brachial pulse pressure gauges and thermometers were performed. The Harvard step test, the experimental group exercise fatigue (Harvard step test) was performed (1). Once again by a doctor taking blood samples from a vein in the arm, lactate concentration, heart rate and blood  pressure were measured after the test. The subject of free throws made and free throw shooting  4 identified twenty successful that the high concentrations of lactate after vigorous activity, how much free throw is successful (Table 1 , Figure 1). Table 1: Comparison of data control and experimental groups Group Pre test arterial blood presure Pre test lactate acid concentration Pre test heart rate Maximum heart ratel Post test arterial blood presure Post test lactate acid concentration Control Group Mean 120.5000 .8400 70.9000 70.9000 120.5000 .8400 Std. Deviation 12.12206 .19551 8.86253 8.86253 12.12206 .19551 Variance 146.944 .038 78.544 78.544 146.944 .038 Exprimental Group Mean 116.0000 1.0000 70.0000 182.4000 155.0000 4.2600 Std. Deviation 14.29841 .51424 10.26320 9.95769 14.33721 1.06479 Variance 204.444 .264 105.333 99.156 205.556 1.134 Figure 1: Number of Basketball three throw .00002.00004.00006.00008.000010.000012.000014.0000control exprim    N   u   m    b   e   r   o    f   B   a   s    k   e   t    b   a    l    f   r   e   e   t    h   r   o   w Groups pretestpostest  5 Inferential statistical methods Analysis of covariance for the interaction of independent variables and data analysis the spss 17 software is used. Discussion   High blood lactate concentration does not affect the accuracy of the basketball free throw in the third panel will consider the significance level (α = 0/05) increased blood lactate concentrations in subjects no effect on the number of goals. The mean blood lactate concentration goals have given rise to no significant difference in the subjects. This research study football pass accuracy of 70% and 100% of the maximum intensity of activity were observed in 100% of maximum working pressure, precision pass in football is worse (15), and the results of the research study this is a contradiction. In another study was carefully pass in water polo, shooting in intense exercise 8/21% better than the rest, which is inconsistent with the present study and in the shot accuracy and speed, it has no effect on the fatigue of the present study are in accord. Also reduces the fatigue performance of tennis skills; tennis players had not yet reduced accuracy in skills that are in agreement with the present study (16). The research Effects of exercise on fatigue, double shot performance have been investigated and found that the accuracy is worse in basketball shot that are inconsistent with the present study (17). Conclusion Physical effects of intense exercise on the basketball possibly interfering effects of fatigue on  basketball free throw accuracy decreases. Lack of independent variables is due to an increase in  body temperature due to increased physical activity. In this situation, the speed of metabolism
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