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Nematode on sweet pepper

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Nematode on sweet pepper
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  This article was downloaded by: [Gansu Agriculture University]On: 24 October 2013, At: 00:30Publisher: Taylor & FrancisInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registeredoffice: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK Archives Of Phytopathology And PlantProtection Publication details, including instructions for authors andsubscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gapp20 Management of root-knot nematode(Meloidogyne spp.) on sweet pepper(Capsicum annuum L.) with moringa(Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaf powder E.N.K. Sowley a , F. Kankam a  & J. Adomako ba  Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy, University forDevelopment Studies, Tamale, Ghana b  CSIR-Crops Research Institute, Kumasi, GhanaPublished online: 18 Oct 2013. To cite this article:  E.N.K. Sowley, F. Kankam & J. Adomako , Archives Of Phytopathology AndPlant Protection (2013): Management of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) on sweetpepper (Capsicum annuum L.) with moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaf powder, Archives Of Phytopathology And Plant Protection, DOI: 10.1080/03235408.2013.848710 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03235408.2013.848710 PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLETaylor & Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the “Content”) contained in the publications on our platform. However, Taylor & Francis,our agents, and our licensors make no representations or warranties whatsoever as tothe accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinionsand views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors,and are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor & Francis. The accuracy of the Contentshould not be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sourcesof information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable for any losses, actions, claims,proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoever orhowsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to or arisingout of the use of the Content.This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Anysubstantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing,systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms &   Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   G  a  n  s  u   A  g  r   i  c  u   l   t  u  r  e   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y   ]  a   t   0   0  :   3   0   2   4   O  c   t  o   b  e  r   2   0   1   3  Management of root-knot nematode (  Meloidogyne  spp.) on sweetpepper ( Capsicum annuum  L.) with moringa (  Moringa oleifera  Lam.)leaf powder E.N.K. Sowley a  *, F. Kankam a  and J. Adomako  b a  Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy, University for Development Studies, Tamale,Ghana;  b CSIR-Crops Research Institute, Kumasi, Ghana (  Received 20 September 2013; accepted 23 September 2013 )A major constraint facing sweet pepper production is infestation by nematodes leadingto reduced yields. Field studies were conducted during the 2012 cropping season at the Experimental Farms of the University for Development Studies, Nyankpala, North-ern region, Ghana, to determine ef  󿬁 cacy of various levels of moringa leaf powder for the control of root-knot nematodes in sweet pepper ( Capsicum annuum  L.) in thesavanna ecology of Ghana. Treatments consisted of three levels of moringa leaf  powder (40, 60 and 80g/L) per plot and 0g/L (control). The experiment was laid out in a randomised complete block design with each treatment replicated four times. Theinfestations of root-knot nematodes were signi 󿬁 cantly lower in the moringa leaf powder-treated plots than the control. Although signi 󿬁 cant differences were not observed in allthe parameters evaluated among the moringa leaf powder treatments, sweet pepper  plants treated with 80g/L of moringa leaf powder per plot recorded the highest meanvalue of plant height, number of leaves, number of fruits per plant, fruit weight per  plant total yield per plot and the thickest plant girth. Similarly, the sweet pepper plantstreated with 80g/L of moringa leaf powder had the lowest infection index (root gall)and nematode population. Application of moringa leaf powder at 40, 60 and 80g/Lincreased sweet pepper yield and decreased nematode population con 󿬁 rming their  potential in management of root-knot nematodes. Keywords:  Moringa oleifera ; sweet pepper; root galling; phytotoxic; root-knot nematode Introduction Sweet pepper ( Capsicum annuum  L.) is an important spice crop, highly cherished for its pungent   󿬂 avour (Yacock et al. 1988). In Ghana, pepper is one of the leading vegetablecrops noted for its export potential. Its production is a good source of income for small-scale producers or out growers and is a signi 󿬁 cant source of foreign exchange amongother vegetable crops (Bonsu et al. 2003). It is used daily in most homes. The GhanaStandards Board (GSB 2004) classi 󿬁 ed the four commercial types of fresh hot peppersgrown from  C. annuum  and  Capsicum frutescens  into two classes namely Elongated-type (e.g. Legon 18), Cherry-type (e.g. Kpakposhito), Bonnet shaped (e.g. Scotch bonnet) and Small elongated type (e.g. African bird ’ s eye).The cultivation of pepper, especially in the tropics, is limited by pest and diseases.Root-knot nematodes (  Meloidogyne  spp.) infestations constitute a major constraint to *Corresponding author. Email: esowley@gmail.com © 2013 Taylor & Francis  Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection , 2013http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03235408.2013.848710    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   G  a  n  s  u   A  g  r   i  c  u   l   t  u  r  e   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y   ]  a   t   0   0  :   3   0   2   4   O  c   t  o   b  e  r   2   0   1   3  global production of pepper (Judy et al. 2002). The potential host range of   Meloidogyne species encompasses more than 300 plant species (Abad et al. 2003). The most econom-ically important species are  M. arenaria, M. incognita, M. javanica  and  M. halpa. Melo-idogyne  species are parasitic on a wide variety of vegetable crops causing up to 5%yield losses globally (Cetintas & Yarba 2010). They have been reported to cause yieldlosses from 20 to 33% (Sasser  1989). Damage caused by nematodes predisposes thecrop to other pathogens through the leaching of nutrients into the soil which favours thegrowth of bacteria and fungi (Sasser  1989). In 2000, about US $500 million was spent on nematode control globally, to reduce losses (Keren-Zur et al. 2000).It is, therefore, important to keep root-knot nematodes infestation as minimal as possible. Though several control options have been proposed, it is still impossible to produce pepper for maximum yield without protection with synthetic pesticides. Chemi-cal control is expensive and economically viable only for high-value crops and creates a potential hazard to the environment and human health; hence, need to use extract from parts of certain plants such as moringa (  Moringa oleifera , Lam.) to inhibit the growthand development of   Meloidogyne  spp.The objective of the study was to evaluate the ef  󿬁 cacy of moringa leaf powder at various levels for the control of root-knot nematodes of sweet pepper. Materials and methods  Experimental site The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm of the University for Develop-ment Studies, Nyankpala Campus, Tamale. Nyankpala is located at latitude 9° 25 ′  41 ″  N and longitude 0° 58 ′  42 ″  W with an altitude of 200 m. The area experiences moderateunimodal rainfall from May to October each year with the peak occurring betweenAugust and September. The mean annual rainfall is 118.64 mm while the mean monthlymaximum rainfall is 10.8mm. Mean monthly minimum temperatures of 22.4 and maxi-mum of 33.6 °C have been recorded. The mean monthly minimum relative humidity is80%. The soil is moderately brown and drained sandy loam. The area is characterised by natural vegetation dominated with few shrubs.  Preparation of moringa leaf powder  Fresh green moringa leaves were harvested in Nyankpala, washed, spread on plastictrays and dried under shade. The dried leaves were pounded with a domestic mortar and pestle and then sieved with a  󿬁 ne netting to obtain the moringa leaf powder.  Agronomic practices  Land preparation The experimental  󿬁 eld was disc ploughed and harrowed to a  󿬁 ne soil tilth during the 󿬁 rst week of July 2012. Lining and pegging was done to demarcate the plot size. Bedswere raised across the slope to check soil erosion.  Nursing and transplanting of seedlings Seeds of the sweet pepper, obtained from Yesu Tumi Agrochemicals Ltd. in Techiman,were nursed on beds and watered daily in the mornings and evenings. Shade was2  E.N.K. Sowley  et al.    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   G  a  n  s  u   A  g  r   i  c  u   l   t  u  r  e   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y   ]  a   t   0   0  :   3   0   2   4   O  c   t  o   b  e  r   2   0   1   3   provided over the beds until the seedlings were ready for transplanting. At six weeksafter sowing seeds on a seed bed, sweet pepper seedlings were transplanted, at a spacingof 80 cm× 60 cm on the  󿬁 eld and then side dressed with N.P.K (15:15:15) fertiliser at arate of 300 kg/ha at six weeks after transplanting (WAT). The moringa leaf powder was placed around the plant. It was applied twice at 2 and 4WAT. Weeding was done at   󿬁 vedays interval. When necessary, the plants were watered twice daily.  Experimental design and treatments The was laid out in a Randomised Complete Block Design with four treatments, eachreplicated four times. The  󿬁 eld measuring 108 m 2 was harrowed to a  󿬁 ne tilth. Individualexperimental plots measured 3m× 2m with 0.5 m alley left between each replication and0.5 m alley left between plots. The treatments were 0g/L (control), 40, 60 and 80 g/L of moringa leaf powder.  Data collection Data were collected on plant height, number of leaves, plant girth, number of fruits per  plant, root galling and nematode population as described below.  Plant height  Five plants were randomly sampled diagonally from each plot, tagged and their height measured with a tape measure from the base to the terminal bud. This was recordedevery 2weeks from 2 to 8WAT.  Number of leaves Five plants of each treatment combination were randomly selected and tagged. Theleaves were counted and recorded at every 2weeks from 2 to 8WAT.  Plant girth Five plants from the middle of each plot were tagged and the circumference of the stemwas measured using tread and a rule. This was done every 2weeks from 2 to 8WAT.  Number of fruits per plant  Five plants were randomly selected from each plot and fruits were counted after harvesting. Weight of fruit per plant  Fruit weight of   󿬁 ve plants from the middle of each plot was measured with a Sartoriuselectronic balance. Total fruit yield per plot  Five plants in the middle of each plot were harvested to determine total yield per plot at harvest and converted to t/ha.  Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection  3    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   G  a  n  s  u   A  g  r   i  c  u   l   t  u  r  e   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y   ]  a   t   0   0  :   3   0   2   4   O  c   t  o   b  e  r   2   0   1   3
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