Psychology

113 pages
4 views

Marine fisheries and sense of place in coastal communities of the English Channel/La Manche

of 113
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Share
Description
The marine fishing industry is undergoing major restructuring driven by fisheries management and policy responses to ecological problems in key stocks.
Transcript
   Diwawa Marine fisheries and sense of place in coastal communities of the English Channel/La Manche   Dr Tim Acott & Dr Julie Urquhart   School of Science, University of Greenwich     2.    ACTION 6.2   Contents 1.   INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................... 4   2.   BACKGROUND ............................................................................................................................................ 7   2.1   POLICY CONTEXT ................................................................................................................................. 7   2.2   SENSE OF PLACE, IDENTITY AND FISHING COMMUNITIES ............................................................ 8   2.2.1 Identity and Culture in Fishing Communities ................................................................................. 10   3.   METHODS AND METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................................ 12   3.1   CASE STUDY SELECTION .................................................................................................................. 13   3.2   METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH ....................................................................................................... 15   3.2.1   Phase 1: Inventory and photographic record of fishing ................................................................... 15   3.2.2   Phase 2: Interviews ......................................................................................................................... 16   4.   RESULTS AND DISCUSSION .................................................................................................................... 19   4.1   OVERVIEW OF CASE STUDY SITES .................................................................................................. 20   4.1.1   Whitstable, Kent .............................................................................................................................. 21   4.1.2 Hastings, East Sussex ................................................................................................................... 21   4.1.3 Brixham, Devon ............................................................................................................................. 22   4.1.4   Cornwall .......................................................................................................................................... 22   4.1.5   Boulogne-sur-mer, Nord-pas-de-Calais .......................................................................................... 27   4.1.6   Fecamp, Haute-Normandie ............................................................................................................. 28   4.1.7   Barfleur & St Vaast, Basse-Normandie ........................................................................................... 28   4.1.8   Paimpol, Brittany ............................................................................................................................. 28   4.2   IDENTITY .............................................................................................................................................. 29   4.2.1   Fishers' identity: Fishing as a ‘way of life’ ....................................................................................... 29   4.2.2   Community identity and cultural heritage ........................................................................................ 31   4.3   CHARACTER ........................................................................................................................................ 36   4.3.1   Fishing boats ................................................................................................................................... 41   4.3.2   Fishing gear .................................................................................................................................... 43   4.3.3    Architecture, structures and buildings ............................................................................................. 45   4.3.5   Place decoration ............................................................................................................................. 47   4.3.6   Souvenirs and print ......................................................................................................................... 48   4.3.7   Information boards .......................................................................................................................... 49   4.3.8   Local culture and art ....................................................................................................................... 50     3.    ACTION 6.2   4.4   RELATIONSHIPS .................................................................................................................................. 55   4.4.1   Social cohesion ............................................................................................................................... 55   4.4.2   Changes in social structures ........................................................................................................... 57   4.4.3   Sea and landscape ......................................................................................................................... 58   4.4.4   Physical challenge .......................................................................................................................... 59   4.4.5   Fish as a place-based ecological resource ..................................................................................... 60   4.4.6   Tourism and fishing ......................................................................................................................... 63   4.5   INFLUENCES ........................................................................................................................................ 67   4.5.1   Policy and regulation ....................................................................................................................... 67   4.5.2   Scientific evidence .......................................................................................................................... 72   4.5.3   Local planning ................................................................................................................................. 73   4.5.4   Tourism ........................................................................................................................................... 74   4.5.5   Perceived threats to fishing identity ................................................................................................ 76   5.   IMPLICATIONS ........................................................................................................................................... 79   5.1   FISH: A PLACE-BASED FOOD ............................................................................................................ 80   5.1.2   Consumer demand ......................................................................................................................... 82   5.1.3   Constraints on fishers ..................................................................................................................... 84   5.1.4 Place, fish and tourism ....................................................................................................................... 87   5.2   DIVERISIFICATION OPPORTUNITIES FOR FISHERS ....................................................................... 87   5.3   RECOGNITION OF SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF FISHING IN POLICY ..................................... 92   6.   CONCLUSIONS .......................................................................................................................................... 93   7.   REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................................ 96   8.    APPENDICES ........................................................................................................................................... 102    APPENDIX 1: INVENTORY OF STUDY SITES ........................................................................................... 102    APPENDIX 2: INTERVIEW SCHEDULE ...................................................................................................... 108    APPENDIX 3: INTERVIEW DATA THEMATIC CODING ............................................................................. 112     4.    ACTION 6.2   1.   INTRODUCTION   The marine fishing industry is undergoing major restructuring driven by fisheries managementand policy responses to ecological problems in key stocks. The FAO State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2010  reports that the proportion of overexploited, depleted or recovering stocks has increased from 10% in 1974 to 32% in 2008 and the proportion of underexploited or moderately exploited stocks has declined from 40% to 15% (2010), with manycommentators referring to a “crisis” in fisheries (Clark, 2006, McGoodwin, 1990). With fish ashuman food reaching an all-time high in 2008 (FAO, 2010), the role of fisheries for income(especially for subsistence and small-scale fishers) and food for consumers is increasinglyimportant, but also increasingly threatened (Symes and Phillipson, 2009, Grafton et al., 2008).Much research and policy to date has focused, perhaps understandably, on the biological andeconomic impacts of fisheries (Symes and Hoefnagel, 2010, McClanahan et al., 2009). Socialand cultural objectives have largely been absent or taken a back seat, although there isincreasing evidence that sustainable fisheries will only be achieved through holistic approachesthat integrate management across biological, social and economic domains (FCR, 2000, Forst,2009) along with associated value change (Jacquet, 2009). Indeed, the policy imperativescreated by wide ranging reviews of marine fisheries in Europe (the recent reform of theEuropean Common Fisheries Policy (CFP), the European Integrated Maritime Strategy and theEuropean approach to Integrated Coastal Zone Management) all call for a greater understandingof the social, cultural and economic impacts of marine fishing. The Blue Paper of the EUIntegrated Maritime Policy states that: “[The] Integrated Maritime Policy should also promoteEurope’s maritime heritage, supporting maritime communities, including port-cities andtraditional fisheries communities, their artefacts and traditional skills, and promoting linksbetween them that enhance their knowledge and visibility” (EC, 2007, p. 15). An ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF) has been accepted as a key instrument for improvingfisheries management (De Young et al., 2008) with marine ecosystems providing a range of provisioning, supporting, regulating and cultural benefits. While the values that society holds for a fisheries ecosystem include capture fishing, habitats, life support functions and livelihoods,preserving the resource for future uses, intrinsic preservation and biodiversity, there are alsonon-material benefits or cultural ecosystem services that people obtain from ecosystems. Theseinclude cultural diversity, spiritual and religious values, knowledge systems, educational values,inspiration, aesthetic values, social relations, identity, cultural heritage, recreation andecotourism (MEA, 2005). However, it is difficult to put an economic value on all cultural servicesor benefits and this often results in those non-material cultural services remaining marginalizedor becoming hidden as externalities (Chan et al., 2012). In the context of marine fishing, Chan etal. (2012) argue that “inspiration and identity benefits are commonly associated with fishing – avalued way of life and source of employment – but they are not fully reflected in monetaryvaluations of market goods associated with the provision of fish for harvest … valuationframeworks are impoverished if they purport to represent the value of the provision of fish for harvest without accounting for these crucial but often intangible benefits associated with theprocess of fishing” (p. 14). Thus, capturing these intangible benefits is important if the full   5.    ACTION 6.2   spectrum of ecosystem services for fisheries is to be integrated into management and policydecisions, even if it makes the decision-making process messier (Chan et al., 2012).The aim of this project, therefore, was to start to capture these non-material benefits byinvestigating the socio-cultural value of marine fishing, focusing on the inshore sector. Specificobjectives were to explore how fishing contributes to place-making in fishing towns and villagesalong the Channel coast in England and France and how this can usefully contribute to policyand management decisions for coastal areas. Using case study examples in both countries, thisreport explores how fishing contributes to a sense of place in the material environment and howfishers and fishing communities construct their identities and attachments to fishing places,along with its associated relevance for industries such as tourism. It further considers the role of fishing places in rural development, drawing on lessons from the more developed agri-foodsector.Fishing not only contributes economically to coastal communities, but also provides a range of broader social and cultural benefits, including the creation of a particular distinctiveness, senseof place and identity focused on fishing, both contemporary and historic. Many coastalcommunities have strong links to fishing that span generations and fishing is a way of life thatgoes beyond the means to earn a living (van Ginkel, 2001). The act of catching fish takes placeat sea, removed from the terrestrial location of these coastal communities, but its influence spillsover onto land to create a particular identity and sense of place in harbour towns inherentlylinked to fishing. Yet, what are the characteristics of these places that define them as “fishing”places and how are the bonds that people form with fishing places manifest in their ‘placeattachment’ and ‘place identity’? Furthermore, given the fragile state of the fishing industry, withits associated social and cultural impacts on the inshore sector in particular,   what role can‘place’ have in embedding fishing into local economies in a more integrated way?While anthropology and fisheries has a long history (Gilden, 2008) and social impactassessment of fisheries is becoming more common place (Bradshaw, 2003, Bradshaw et al.,2001) there is a lack of studies that explicitly explore people-place relationships, including howmarine fishing contributes to place attachment and sense of place in coastal communities. Thisis surprising given the importance of place and community identity in broader policy makingcontexts. While Farnum et al. (2005) suggest that natural resource managers are becomingincreasingly aware of the importance of sense of place in management decisions, this has yet tobe seen within the area of marine fisheries management.Firstly, some definitions are required. The main focus of this study was the inshore sector,although how to specifically define this is problematic, not least because of differences insectoral divisions between England and France. In England, inshore fisheries refers to vesselsunder 10 metres in length, that generally operate in coastal waters out to 6 nautical miles wherethe inshore management regime applies (Coffey and Dwyer, 2000), although they can work outto the 12 nautical mile territorial waters limit. In 2010 there were 2,569 under 10 metre vesselsregistered in England and 552 over 10 metres (MMO, 2011). There are stronger concentrationsof inshore boats along the south coast from the Thames estuary to the Severn (MFA, 2008).However, although under 10 metre vessels make up around 82% of the English fleet, they onlyaccount for about 6.5% of the catch volume (MMO, 2011). In France, Ifremer defines the inshore
Related Documents
View more...
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks
SAVE OUR EARTH

We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

More details...

Sign Now!

We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!

x