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  labor and management. This is regarded as a conflict over limited resources involving wages, benefits, working conditions, and related matters. Integrative Negotiation. This is negotiation approach in which the goals of the parties are not regarded as mutually exclusive and in which the focus is on making it possible for both sides to achieve their objectives. An example may be provided as follows: The training unit of a company was ordered by top management to provide a series of training sessions to all employees. The heads of various departments, however, are worried about the reduction in the number of working days that have been allotted to achieve their respective departmental targets. Clearly, the objectives of the training unit and the other department are in conflict. To solve the problem, the parties agreed that the training will be done on days that the employees are not very busy. The Negotiation Process  The negotiation process consists of five steps: 1.   Preparation and Planning 2.   Definition of Ground Rules 3.   Clarification and Justification 4.   Bargaining and Problem Solving 5.   Closure and Implementation Preparation and Planning.  In this first step, the person assigned to negotiation for a certain party should determine the following: 1.   The nature of the Conflict 2.   The history leading up to this Negotiation 3.   Who are involved and what are their perception of the conflict 4.   What is party wants from the negotiation 5.   What his group is prepared to accept 6.   What the other party wants from the negotiation 7.   What intangible or hidden interests may be important to them 8.   What the other party is prepared to accept 9.   What negotiation strategy may be adapted  Definition of Ground Rules.  The next step is to define the ground rules and procedures with the other party over the negotiation itself. As such, the following concerns must be cleared: 1.   Who will do the negotiating 2.   Where will the negotiation take place 3.   What time constraints, if any, will apply 4.   To what issues will be negotiation will be limited 5.   What specific procedures must be followed if an impasse is reached Clarification and Justification.  In this step, the parties may need to explain, amplify, clarify, bolster, and justify the srcinal demands of each other. This must be done in a nonconfrontational manner. This step must be regarded as an opportunity for educating and informing each other on the issues, indicating their importance, and how each of the party arrived at their initial demands. Bargaining and Problem Solving.  In this step, the parties will make an attempt to reach an agreement through give-and-take action like the offering and acceptance of concessions. There are occasions when bargaining and problem solving would be easier to undertake if it is aided by focusing on a superordinate goal. This kind of goal is one that cannot be attained by one group singly and supersedes all other concerns of any of the individual group involved in the conflict. For example, if the conflict is already causing heavy financial losses to the firm, the conflicting parties may agree on pursuing company survival as superordinate goal. As a result, the parties may agree to withdraw some or all of their demands. Closure and Implementation.  This final step involves formalizing the agreement that has been worked out and developing any procedures that are necessary for implementation and monitoring. Major negotiations usually require formal contracts. Otherwise, a handshake would indicate closure of the negotiation. SUMMARY Conflicts happened in organizations and if they are not dealt with properly, the survival of the organization is jeopardized. Conflict occurs when groups disagree over the goals to attain or the methods to be used to accomplish them.  Conflicts may be constructive or destructive. A conflict can occur at different levels such as intrapersonal, interpersonal, intergroup, or interorganizational. The sources of conflict may e broadly categorized into structural or personal factors. Conflicts develop in stages consisting of antecedent conditions, perceived and felt conflicts, manifest conflict, conflict resolution or suppression, and conflict aftermath. Sometimes, negotiation is a good strategy in dealing with conflicts. The major negotiating approaches consist of distributive bargaining and integrative negotiation. The negotiation process consists of preparation and planning, definition of ground rules, clarification and justification, bargaining and problem solving, and closure and implementation. QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW AND DISCUSSION 1.   What is conflict? 2.   Are all forms of conflict harmful to the organization? Why do you think? 3.   On what level may conflict occur? 4.   Emotional conflict is a type of interpersonal conflict. How it may described? 5.   Structural factors constitute a broad category of conflict sources. What factors are included in this category? 6.   What personality types are considered conflict magnets? 7.   Why does the chronic absentee regarded as a conflict-causing personality? 8.   What are the stages of conflict? 9.   What is the difference between the perceived and felt conflict? 10.   What conditions are necessary for negotiations to be useful? SUGGESTED ITEMS FOR RESEARCH Describe a conflict that happened in your organization and indicate how the conflict was resolved.  EXERCISE NO. 11 Name:__________________________________________ Rating:_________________ Subject:_________________________________________ Professor:_______________ I. Fill in the blanks. 1. _____________ is any situation in which incompatible goals, attitudes, emotions, or behavior leads to disagreement or opposition between two parties. 2. _____________ is that type of conflict that can decrease work productivity and  job satisfaction and contribute to absenteeism and job turnover. 3. _____________ is that kind of conflict that happens when an individual experiences personal frustration, anxiety, and stress. 4. The two broad categories of the sources of conflict are structural factors and  __________. 5. _____________ is a conflict-causing personality which is always critical of other people and their achievements. 6. _____________ is a conflict-causing personality of the individual who wants to be liked by others and agrees to do what everyone asks. 7. _____________ is that kind of conflict that refers to the awareness by one or more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to occur. 8. _____________ is that kind of conflict which is more likely to have longer lasting effects than either perceived or felt conflict. 9. _____________ is that technique of conflict resolution whereby a shared goal that cannot be attained without the cooperation of each of the conflicting parties created. 10. The major negotiating approaches are distributive bargaining and ___________.
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