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M. Boguszewicz-Kreft, E. Magier-Łakomy, K. Sokołowska (2015), The Country-of-Origin Effect in the Selected Transport Services, Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego nr 875, Problemy zarządzania, finansów i marketingu nr 41, tom 2, s.

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M. Boguszewicz-Kreft, E. Magier-Łakomy, K. Sokołowska (2015), The Country-of-Origin Effect in the Selected Transport Services, Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego nr 875, Problemy zarządzania, finansów i marketingu nr 41, tom 2, s. 23-34.
  ZESZYTY NAUKOWE UNIWERSYTETU SZCZECI•SKIEGO  NR 875 PROBLEMY ZARZ!DZANIA, FINANSÓW I MARKETINGU  NR 41, t. 2 2015 DOI: 10.18276/pzfm.2015.41/2-02  MONIKA BOGUSZEWICZ-KREFT 1  EWA MAGIER- •AKOMY 2   KATARZYNA SOKO•OWSKA 3  Gdansk School of Banking THE COUNTRY-OF-ORIGIN EFFECT IN THE SELECTED TRANSPORT SERVICES Summary The country-of-srcin effect has a multi-dimensional character. Neglecting the impact of COO’s dimensions in the evaluation of the selected services may result in some simplified, inaccu-rate conclusions. The aim of the presented research was: 1) to determine an in-depth COO rate in the evaluation of transport services; 2) to determine a relation between the COO effect of a partic-ular country in the evaluation of transport services and the readiness to purchase the particular ser-vice in this country. The research results indicate a strong relation between the COO effect and the readiness to purchase the particular service in this country: the higher the COO effect is, the higher readiness to purchase the service becomes. Keywords: country-of-srcin effect, transport services, survey results Introduction In an article published in 1965, R.D. Schooler, as the first author ever, raised the question of perception of imported goods and the impact of such perception on  buyers’ opinions. This phenomenon was referred to as the country-of-srcin effect, and in the subsequent years it became one of the most often analysed problem in expert literature concerning international marketing and consumers’ behaviour in 1 2 3   Monika Boguszewicz-Kreft, Ewa Magier-  •akomy, Katarzyna Sokoowska   24 the reference to material products. The effect of the country-of-srcin is much less known and analysed when we consider services. 4  Considering liberalisation tendencies in the legal regulations, which refer to the international trade of services and technological advance, the significance of the cross-border service trade is expected to increase. In the result a necessity of intensifying the research on the COO in services appears to be well-grounded. Their specific characteristics indicate that transferring conclusions, which result from the analysis carried out for tangible products should not take place automat-ically. Low-cost airlines as well as courier companies can be used as the examples of dynamically developing sectors on the Polish market. Their customers may take advantage of a number of offers provided by the companies from various countries. The process of deregulating the market of airline connections in Poland started in 2004, with the access to the European Union. In consequence, this lib-eralisation resulted in the increase in the number of airlines operating in Poland (from 30 in 2003 to 46 in 2008). 5  It caused the increase in competition on partic-ular connection lines. The low-cost carriers turned out to be important players in this market. In 2014 they transported 54.30% of passengers. The first position on the Polish market of air passenger transport among them was taken by Ryanair, with its share at the level of 27.95%. The third position (just behind PLL LOT) was taken by WizzAir (19.27% of the market share). No other low-cost carriers (Norwegian Air Shuttle, EasyJet, Air Berlin, Germanwings, Vueling Airlines, AirBaltic,, WowAir) exceeded the level of 2.60% of the market share in the market of air transport services in Poland. 6  In Poland, the formation of a real market of courier services started in 1989, during the social and economic transformation time, when the domestic market opened to the world. Then a number of national enterprises were established, and 4  Authorial literature review, see W. Czakon,  Metodyka systematycznego przegl!du literatury , in:  Podstawy metodologii b ada" w naukach o zarz!dzaniu , ed. W. Czakon, Oficyna Wolters Kluwer business, Warszawa 2013, p. 51 based on the ESBCO and ProQuest database of publica-tions. The question of the COO in services is presented in a broader scope in: M. Boguszewicz-Kreft,  Efekt kraju pochodzenia w usugach , w: Sektor usug –   uwarunkowania i tendencje rozwoju , Prace Naukowe Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego we Wroc!awiu nr 353, Wyd. Uniwersytetu Ekono-micznego, Wroc!aw 2014, p. 79 - 89. 5   UOKiK: Wpyw liberalizacji rynku po!cze" lotniczych na konkurencj# na tym rynku , Departa-ment Analiz, luty 2010, p. 4. 6   Civil Aviation Authority, Statistics by carriers , (24.05.2015).  The country-of-srcin effect in the selected transport services 25 the subsidiaries of the largest global companies operating in this sector appeared. At present, there are about 200 business entities which operate in the CEP sector (courier, express and parcel delivery services) and among them many interna-tional companies can be mentioned. 7  Despite the fact that the market of courier services is developing very fast, using this type of services in Poland per one  person turns out to be several times lower in comparison to the countries, which have been the members of the European Union much longer. Therefore, it may  be reasonable to expect some growing tendencies in their development. 8  Courier companies come as a good example of providing services, the development of which is strongly affected by the internet services. In fact, fast development of e-shops is actually the reason for dynamic development of the courier services sector. In 2013 internet shops sent almost 25% of all the deliveries. Considering the fact that the number of e-shops in Poland differs significantly from the num- ber of e-shops in Europe (in 2013 this number was evaluated to be about 14 thou-sands, comparing that to 100 thousands in Germany and 117 thousands in France), their further development can be expected, along with the increase in courier ser-vice demand. 9  The research presented in this article poses a question: how significant are the dimensions of the COO in transport services (in courier services and low-cost airlines)? The article presents an attempt at defining an in-depth rate of the COO effect of the each analysed country in the reference to the transport services men-tioned above, and at defining the relation between the COO effect of the particular country in terms of transport service evaluation and the readiness to buy and use this service. The data were collected with the use of random questionnaire survey tech-nique. The conclusions drawn from the research presented below may come as significant premises for the formation of service offer and promotion programmes for foreign entities which operate on the Polish market. The COO effect and its dimensions in marketing The COO effect is shaped by the factors which refer to the consumer’s fea- tures (i.e. ethnocentrism, aversion to a particular country, stereotypes, dimensions 7    Rynek usug kurierskich: E  - commerce nowym polem dziaania , 19,rynek-uslug-kurierskich-e-commerce-nowym-polem-dzialania.html/?no_redirect=1 (24.05.2015). 8  A. Marcysiak, K. Pieniak-Lendzion, M. Lendzion, Usugi kurierskie na rynku usug logistycz- nych w Polsce , Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczo-Humanistycznego w Siedlcach No. 96, Siedlce 2013, p. 29. 9    Ro$nie rynek usug kurierskich. Spodziewany jest wzrost liczby fuzji i przej#% ,,p1478075020 (24.05.2015).   Monika Boguszewicz-Kreft, Ewa Magier-  •akomy, Katarzyna Sokoowska   26 of national cultures, demographic factors) as well as to the level of the economic development level of the consumer’s country. The discussed phenomenon is also affected by the evaluation of the product attributes: intrinsic ones (such as func-tionality of products, their types and complexity) and extrinsic ones (intangible qualities, such as the COO, prices, brands, guarantees). The features of products listed above, along with individual factors which refer to the consumer (the aspect of consumption, 10  the level of involvement, the type of involvement, the famili-arity with the product and its significance) come as the moderators of the COO impact. 11  Until now the research on the COO has referred to the broad scope of prob-lems, such as: the impact of this phenomenon on the evaluation and the quality of a particular offer, perception of the value and the purchase risk, purchasing intentions and readiness to pay a specified price. 12  This research has been focused on the analysis of different types of products, methods and variables. The scientists have also considered the question of a multi-dimensional char-acter of the COO effect. At first, they assumed the opinion that it is a one-dimen-sional phenomenon, however, this opinion evolved towards the assumption that it is a complex category. M.S. Roth and J.B. Romeo (1992) suggested a COO model consisting of four elements: -   innovativeness (understood as the use of modern technologies and tech-nical advancement), -   design (appearance, style, colours and variety), -    prestige (exclusiveness, status, brand reputation), -   workmanship (reliability, durability, craft, the quality of workmanship). 13   10  P. Sharma,  Demystifying cultural differences in country-of-srcin effects: exploring the mod-erating roles of product type, consumption context, and involvement  , “ Journal of International Con- sumer Marketing”  2011, No. 23, Iss. 5, p. 344. 11  M. Pharr, Synthesizing country-of-srcin research from the last decade: is the concept still sa-lient in an era of global brands? , “Journal of Marketing Theory & Practice” 2005 , Vol. 13, No. 4,  p. 35  –  37. 12  The review of literature can be found in: J.M. Pharr, Synthesizing country-of-srcin … ; R.A. Peterson, A.J.P. Jolibert,  A meta-analysis of country-of-srcin effects , “Journal of International Business Studies” 1995, Vol. 26, No. 4, p. 83  –  101; S. Rezvani et al.,  A conceptual study on the country of srcin effect on consumer purchase intention , “Asian Social Science” 2012, Vol. 8, No. 12, p. 205  –  205. 13  The review of the methods applied in the research on the COE can be found in: M.S. Roth, J.B. Romeo,  Matching product category and country image perception: a framework for managing country-of-origin effects , “Journal of International Business Studies” 1992, Vol. 3, No. 24, p. 477  –  497; S. Bose, A. Ponnam, Country of srcin effect on services: an evaluation of entertainment  ,   “Managing Leisure”  2011, Vol. 2, No. 16, p. 98  –  107.  The country-of-srcin effect in the selected transport services 27 Adopting the model described above for the requirements of the analysis of the entertainment sector, S. Bose and A. Ponnam (2011) suggested the following dimensions: innovativeness, variety, exclusiveness and quality. 14  The authors of the article have attempted to modify the models described above by defining universal attributes which would be applicable to the analysis of various types of services, and assuming the following dimensions: -   innovativeness  –   the use of the most recent knowledge and technology, -   variety  –   appearance, style, the scope of an offer, -    prestige  –   exclusiveness, status, reputation, -   quality  –   reliability, durability, professionalism. It should be noticed that the question whether the COO effect is a multi-di-mensional phenomenon has not been explicitly decided by the abovementioned scientists. In their conclusions they presented the tendency to support the opinion that it belongs to a one-dimensional category. The research method In the research the technique of random questionnaire survey was applied. The respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire form which consisted of 5 parts, using the six- grade Likert’s scale. In the first part, the respondents an- swered the questions concerning the image of some selected European countries, with the consideration of four criteria defined above, namely: innovativeness, va-riety, quality and prestige. In the second part the respondents were asked to de-termine the weight of each of four dimensions for the transport services. In the third part they were asked to determine their readiness to purchase the analysed services coming from the particular countries. In the fourth part the respondents were asked to define their level of knowledge about the analysed countries. The questionnaire form was ended with the personal information about the respond-ents. There were nine countries of the European Union selected for the analysis: Germany, Great Britain and France  –   the countries with strong, highly developed economies which represent the so called “old Union”; Sweden –   the country from  Northern Europe; Italy and Spain  –   the countries from Southern Europe; Lithua-nia and Hungary  –   the countries from Central and Eastern Europe which represent new members of the European Union; Poland  –    the respondents’ home country.  The survey participants were 129 students of a business faculty, who studied at full-time and part-time study courses. This group included 55 men (42.63%) 14  S. Bose, A. Ponnam, Country of srcin ..., p. 98  –  107.
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