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Law Enforcement in the 21st Century 4th Edition Grant Test Bank

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  Law Enforcement in the 21st Century 4th Edition Grant  TEST BANK Full download:  Chapter 2 Matching  1.Hue and cry a) Victimization survey that measure the dark figure of crime 2.Sir Robert Peel b)Official statistics of crime collected by the FBI 3.Posse comitatus c)Father of police professionalism 4.Spoils system d) Established the London Metropolitan Police 5.August Vollmer e) Professional police association 6.IACP f) Political Era system where politicians favored those they knew 7.UCR g) Constable ’ s call for help from citizens 8. NCVS h) Limits the involvement of the military in local law enforcement 9.Lex talionis i)Act that formed the London Metropolitan Police 10.Metropolitan Police Act j) An eye for an eye Answer: 1. g 2. d 3. h 4. f 5. c 6. e 7. b 8. a 9. j 10. i Level: Basic Chapter 2 Essay  Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. 1. Discuss slave patrols and Jim Crow laws. Answer: Slave patrols were first established in the South during the mid-1740s, with officers  being given broad powers to punish slaves who committed offenses or who refused to submit to their masters. The slave patrols at this time were coordinated by property owners who, individually, had difficulty controlling the slave population and ensuring that they did not defy their masters. As with the night watch system, slave patrols were based on a form of citizen obligation whereby members of a community would watch over other citize ns’ s laves to ensure their obedience. Slave patrols evolved into an organized system with a chain of command and  organizational structure and were generally considered the precursor to modern police forces in the United States. By the 1880s, with the abolishment of slave codes, many states enacted Jim Crow Laws. These codes, examples of which are shown in Table 2.3, enforced segregation between whites  and blacks in schools, parks, restrooms, public transportation, sports teams, and most other  public facilities. Interracial marriage was prohibited, and employers were required to have separate facilities for their white and black workers. Because the police were required to enforce the Jim Crow laws, the black community came to view them essentially as agents of an oppressive legal system that treated them as second-class citizens rather than equal to whites. Much of the tension between the police and minority communities that ensued throughout the early twentieth century resulted from their enforcement first of the slave codes and subsequently the Jim Crow laws. Objective: Explain regional differences in the development of law enforcement, such as slave  patrols and Jim Crow laws. Page number: 31-33 Level: Basic 2. List the characteristics of Kelling and Moore's Political Era (1840  –  1930). Answer: During this era, most police officers actively worked to further the interests of the local  politicians who placed them in power and gave them their resources and authority. These  politicians were almost all upper-middle-class white males who worked within a spoils system, appointing people to civil service jobs predominately based on patronage, political affiliation, or in return for monetary payments. In addition, they often rewarded their associates by giving them key positions in police departments, and the politicians, in turn, used the police to help them maintain their political positions. As a result, policing was rife with corruption. Toward the end of the nineteenth century, many public leaders became convinced that something needed to be done to combat increasing levels of corruption and political favoritism resulting from the spoils system. It was at this point that the police began a period of major reform, aimed primarily at making them more professional and less susceptible to outside pressures. . Objective: Identify Kelling and Moo re’ s eras of policing and describe key events in the Political Era. Page number: 33-35 Level: Basic 3. Discuss the early development of policing in England (include shires, tithings, shire reeve, constable, posse, etc.). Answer: By the middle of the ninth century, the majority of the English population lived in established towns and cities, each with its own system of rules and organization. During the reign of Alfred the Great (849  –  899 AD ), however, a new system of social organization was imposed. In an effort to make the collection of taxes and the maintenance of the king ’ s peace easier, Alfred divided England into regions known as shires. Each shire, which was similar to the American county, consisted of geographic units known as “ hundreds ”—  so named because each contained 100 families. Each of the hundreds was composed of ten tithings, and a tithing consisted of ten families. Under this new arrangement, every citizen was tied to a particular tithe and was jointly responsible with all other members of his or her group for the payment of taxes and the maintenance of order. As a result, a crime committed by one person was held to be a crime committed by his or her entire community, with the punishment to be borne by the group as a whole. In essence, Alfred ’ s aim was to make communities self-regulating when it came to the   payment of taxes and the enforcement of law. Shire reeves, precursors to modern-day sheriffs, were the leaders of the shires and were appointed by the king. They were given the task of ensuring that law and order was maintained throughout their region. Drawing on the assistance of locally elected constables, shire reeves frequently organized villagers and other members of the community into posses that would track down and apprehend offenders. Although by modern standards the system of policing established by Alfred the Great might appear to be crude, the introduction of shire reeves and local constables revolutionized the way in which laws were enforced throughout medieval England. In the space of a few decades, the administration of justice was taken out of the hands of individuals and made the responsibility of  particular communities and their appointed leaders. Law enforcement ceased to be a private matter and became associated with the king and his agents. Some three centuries later, this system was formalized by the Statute of Winchester (1285), which increased the power of the constables and made them responsible for organizing local watchers. In addition, under the Statute all men between the ages of fifteen and sixty were required to bear arms in defense of the crown and the king ’ s peace and to assist their local constable in the pursuit of offenders. Failure to heed the constable ’ s call for help  —  known as the hue and cry  —  was a punishable offense under the new law, and anyone who did not help to apprehend criminals risked being tried with them as associates. Objective: Trace the development of informal policing in England and the United States. Page number: 26-30 Level: Basic 4. Discuss the significance of the Pendleton Act of 1883. Answer: One of the most significant developments at the end of the nineteenth century was the  passage of the Pendleton Act, whose primary purpose was to abolish the spoils system. The Pendleton Act was a federal bill, and its main goal was to reduce the level of corruption endemic with the federal administration of Ulysses S. Grant ( The Columbia Encyclopedia 2001). Because it was a federal act, it only applied to federal employees. However, it set in motion a series of similar proposals at the state and local levels calling for the reform of hiring and promotion standards for civil servants in local governments. Because it established objective criteria for hiring  public officials and made it unlawful to dismiss civil employees for political reasons, the Act led to a wave of reforms. Before the Act, most government positions were political appointments. Although the Act did not entirely eliminate the influence of politicians, it was an important first step towards regulating the influence of politicians in hiring decisions. Objective: Identify Kelling and Moo re’ s eras of policing and describe key events in the Political Era. Page number: 34 Level: Basic 5. Identify J. Edgar Hoover and discuss his contributions to policing. Answer: A firm believer in the need for professional law enforcement agencies, Hoover was largely responsible for developing the FBI National Academy in 1935, which is responsible for training police officers from around the country in specialized policing and investigation techniques. Hoover also was responsible for establishing the FBI Crime Laboratory, which, despite controversy surrounding the lab in the 1990s, is generally regarded as one of the best such laboratories in the world. 5 Hoov er’ s other key achievements include the introduction of the
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