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Land use in Classical Antiquity: How good are the global datasets? A case study in Roman Switzerland (1st century B.C.E. – 3rd century C.E.)

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The impact of humans on the landscapes of Europe in Classical Antiquity has been poorly quantified to date. Most global scenarios of Anthropogenic Land Cover Change (ALCC), e.g., HYDE and KK10, suggest that humans had relatively little influence on
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   Available datasets in Switzerland Ryan E. Hughes ARVE Research GroupInstitute of Earth Surface DynamicsUniversity of LausanneSwitzerlandhughesrya@gmail.com Contact Abstract   The impact of humans on the landscapes of Eu-rope in Classical Antiquity has been poorly quantiÞed to date. Most global scenarios of An-thropogenic Land Cover Change (ALCC), e.g., HYDE and KK10, suggest that humans had rel-atively little inßuence on land cover during the Imperium    Romanum  , while documentary sources and archaeological data imply that much of the Mediterranean and surrounding ar-eas were severely impacted by human activities by this period. In order to address this discrep-ancy between models and observations, we have synthesised the archaeological evidence of ancient agriculture and land use, primarily based on archaeobotany, archaeozoology, and palynology, from the late 1st century B.C.E. until the mid-3rd century C.E., the so called Pax    Romana   period, for the area covering modern Switzerland. Using these data, we reconstruct per    capita   land use in the principal regions of Switzerland: the Alps, Plateau and Jura (includ-ing NW Switzerland), and the diversity evident between different site-types, Roman colonies ( colonia  ), urban centres ( civitas &  vici  ), military sites, Vindonissa (legionary fortress) rural es-tates ( villae  ) and rural settlements. This per capita land use is calculated for an individual inhabiting the site, with the impact spread across the nearby landscape, and, at times, substantially further abroad. Where the archae-ological record does not record necessary in-formation, such as quantifying productivity and fertility, the literary record, ethnographic studies and modern scientiÞc studies are used to de-velop a holistic view of ancient land use and human-environment interactions. Our data syn-thesis will subsequently be used to inform quan-titative models of human-environment interac-tions, which allow us to test hypotheses and as-sumptions about land use in the ancient world.By grounding land use models in the archaeo-logical record, we can evaluate the accuracy of the outputs, while at the same time provide a practical and ßexible tool for estimating ALCC over larger landscapes that more accurately re-ßects the archaeological record. Land use in Classical Antiquity: How good are the global datasets? A case study in Roman Switzerland (late 1 st  century B.C.E. Ð mid- 3 rd  century C.E.) Ryan E. Hughes & Jed O. Kaplan References: Hughes, R.E. in review. Estimating per capita  land use and diet from the archaeological record: A case study from Roman Switzerland (late 1st century B.C.E. - mid-3rd century C.E.). Hughes, R.E., E. Weiberg, M. FinnŽ, A. Bonnier & J.O. Kaplan. in prep. Circle diagrams as a method for illustrating land use in antiquity using archaeolog- ical data: Methods - limitations - potential. Acknowledgements ARVE Research Group - University of Lausanne, CHDoLP Research Group - University of UppsalaIPNA - University of Basel, CHDept. of Classics - SUNY, University at Buffalo , USAIntegrated History of People on Earth (IHOPE) ERC Grant: COEVOLVE - 313797 Yellow = Archaeozoological assemblages (Alps = 9; Jura & NW = 51; Plateau = 64)Blue = Archaeobotanical assemblages (Alps = 1; Jura & NW = 24; Plateau = 21)       H     e     c      t     a     r     e     s 0.751.52.253 ColoniaCivitasSettlementsColoniaViciVillaeSettlementsMilitary sitesVindonissaCivitasViciVillaeSettlements Habitation AreaFree-threshing wheatGlume wheatMilletBarleyRyeOatsLegumesFodder cropsOil and Þbre cropsFallowFruits and nutsVinesWoodlotHorsesOxenMulesDonkeysSheepGoatsCattlePigsWild Resources (plant)Wild Resources (animal) AlpsJura and NW SwitzerlandPlateau Per capita land use by site-type and region Military sites   show the high-est per capita   land use due to the richness of the mili-tary diet and the promi-nence of cattle, swine and demands on the woodlot. Second to military sites are rural settlements , which show a high degree of lo-calised impact, with assem-blages that suggest a differ-ence in diet/population from larger urban sites, as well as their role in supplying ur-ban centres. Although the major settlements of Augus- ta Raurica in the NW, and Aventicum in the Plateau would have had the largest overall impact on the land-scape due to their scale, di-verse diets and inhabitants, this was spread across the region, and abroad. Villae   scattered along the Roman road network show the low-est per capita   impact due to the high prevalence of slaves and the cereal-domi-nant diet they were fed. The urban and military centres were large consumers, whose land use was de-ferred to villae   and rural sites, as well as across re-gions and the Empire. There are slight differences in land use between the three geographic zones of Switzerland. The Jura Mas-sif and NW Switzerland show the highest overall per capita   land use of the three zones, due primarily to the military installations and high cattle consumption. The Alps show intermediary levels of land use per capi- ta,  despite the decreased yields from the region, due to the prevalence of sheep/ goat. The Plateau shows the lowest values based on the archaeological evidence due to the fertility of the re-gion and higher pig/cattle consumption. Land use in Roman Switzer-land is more dependent on local cultural and societal conditions on a site-speciÞc level than regional variation. This shows it is essential to incorporate archaeologically informed dietary and life-style reconstructions into fu-ture work modelling ancient land use to accurately illus-trate the ecological impact of ancient populations, and not underestimate the de-gree of human-environment interaction in the ancient world. ConclusionsMethodology  Livestock pasturageArboricultureField crops
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