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TABLE OF CONTENTS No. Title Page 1.0 Abstract/Summary 1 2.0 Introduction 1 3.0 Aims 4 4.0 Theory 5 5.0 Apparatus 6 6.0 Methodology/Procedure 7 7.0 Results 9 8.0 Calculations
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Flow Measurement

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TABLE OF CONTENTS No. Title Page1.0 Abstract/Summary 12.0 Introduction 13.0 Aims 44.0 Theory 55.0 Aaratus !!.0 ethodology/Procedure ##.0 \$esults %&.0 'alculations 10%.0 (iscussion 2210.0 'onclusion 2311.0 \$ecommendations 2412.0 \$e*erence/Aendi+ 25 1  ABSTRACT  ,as absortion is a rocess in -hich the soluble art o* mi+ture are trans*erred to aliuid. ,as absortion is done in a aced column. This reort are done to e+amine theair ressure dro across the column as the *unction o* air *lo- rate *or di**erent -ater *lo- rates through the column. hen the air ressure dro to certain limit thehenomena no-n as *looding -ill occur in -hich the system can no longer oerate asit is. ence the *looding oint is to be determined as to mae sure that the rocessshould be made to oerate under the *looding oint. INTRODUCTION ,as absortion is a rocess in -hich the soluble arts o* a gas mi+ture are trans*erredto or dissoled in a liuid. The reerse rocess called desortion or striing is used totrans*er olatile arts *rom a liuid mi+ture to a gas.617There*ore there -ill be mass trans*er o* the comonent o* the gas *rom the gas hase tothe liuid hase. The solute trans*erred is said to be absorbed by the liuid. In gasdesortion 8or striing9 the mass trans*er is in the oosite direction o* -hich thetrans*er is *rom the liuid hase to gas hase. The rincile o* both systems are thesame. :ut *rom here and on -e are only interested in gas absortion.There are 2 tyes o* absortion rocesses; hysical absortion and chemicalabsortion deending on -hether there is any chemical reaction bet-een the soluteand the solent 8absorbent9.hen -ater and hydrocarbon oils are used as absorbents no signi*icant chemicalreaction occur bet-een the absorbent and the solute and the rocess is commonlyre*erred to the hysical absortion. hen aueous sodium hydro+ide 8a strong base9 isused as the absorbent to dissole an acid gas absortion is accomanied by a raidand irreersible neutrali<ation reaction in the liuid hase and the rocess is re*erred toas chemical absortion or reactie absortion. 2  ,as absortion euiment is designed to achiee the greatest racticable inter*acialarea bet-een the gas and the liuid streams so that liuid srays and gas=bubblingdeices are o*ten emloyed. In many cases a ertical array o* trays is so arranged thatthe liuid descends oer a series o* er*orated trays or *lo-s do-n oer ceramicacing that *ills a to-er.>or the hydrogenation o* oils absortion is *ollo-ed by reaction o* the hydrogen -ith theoil and a nicel catalyst is used to seed u the reactions. Also ressure is alied toincrease gas concentrations and there*ore seed u the reaction rates. Practicalroblems are concerned -ith arranging distribution o* the catalyst as -ell as o* oil andhydrogen. Some designs sray oil and catalyst into hydrogen others bubble hydrogenthrough a continuous oil hase in -hich catalyst articles are susended.>or the striing o* olatile *laours and taints in deodori<ing euiment the steamhase is in general the continuous one and the liuid is srayed into this and thensearated. In one design o* cream deodori<ing lant cream is srayed into anatmoshere o* steam and the t-o streams then ass on to the ne+t stages or the steammay be condensed and *resh steam used in the ne+t stage. 627 AIMS To e+amine the air ressure dro across the column as a *unction o* air *lo- rate *or di**erent -ater *lo- rates through the column. 3  THEORY  Another de*inition o* gas absortion/desortion is a rocess in -hich a gaseous mi+tureis brought into contact -ith a liuid and during the contact a comonent is trans*erredbet-een the gas stream and liuid stream. The gas may be bubbled through the liuidor it may be assed oer streams o* the liuid arranged to roide a large sur*acethrough -hich the mass trans*er can occur. The liuid *ilm in this latter case can *lo-do-n the sides o* the columns or oer acing or it can cascade *rom one tray toanother -ith the liuid *alling and the gas rising in the counter *lo-. The gas or comonent o* it either dissoles in the liuid 8absortion9 or e+tracts a olatilecomonent *rom the liuid 8desortion9. 627In eery aced to-er -ith a gien si<e o* acing and tye has an uer limit to therate o* gas *lo- no-n as *looding elocity o* -hich the to-er cannot oerate aboe theelocity mentioned earlier. At lo- gas elocities the liuid *lo-s do-n-ard through theacing unin*luenced by the u-ard gas *lo-. As the gas *lo- rate increases at lo- gaselocities the ressure dro starts to rise at higher rate. The liuid accumulationincreases as the gas *lo- rate is increased. At the *looding oint the liuid -ill no longer hae the ability to *lo- do-n through the ac column and later is blo-n out -ith or bythe gas.637 4
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