Press Releases

26 pages

Impacts of pollution on coastal and marine ecosystems including coastal and marine fisheries and approach for management: a review and synthesis

of 26
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Impacts of pollution on coastal and marine ecosystems including coastal and marine fisheries and approach for management: a review and synthesis
  Review Impacts of pollution on coastal and marine ecosystems includingcoastal and marine fisheries and approach for management:a review and synthesis Md. Shahidul Islam * , Masaru Tanaka Division of Applied Biosciences, Faculty of Fisheries, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan Abstract The history of aquatic environmental pollution goes back to the very beginning of the history of human civilization. However,aquatic pollution did not receive much attention until a threshold level was reached with adverse consequences on the ecosystemsand organisms. Aquatic pollution has become a global concern, but even so, most developing nations are still producing hugepollution loads and the trends are expected to increase. Knowledge of the pollution sources and impacts on ecosystems is importantnot only for a better understanding on the ecosystem responses to pollutants but also to formulate prevention measures. Many of the sources of aquatic pollutions are generally well known and huge effort has been devoted to the issue. However, new concepts andideas on environmental pollution are emerging (e.g., biological pollution) with a corresponding need for an update of the knowl-edge. The present paper attempts to provide an easy-to-follow depiction on the various forms of aquatic pollutions and their impactson the ecosystem and organisms. Ó 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction The United Nations Convention on the Law of theSea defined pollution as Ô the introduction by man, di-rectly or indirectly, of substances or energy into themarine environment, including estuaries, which resultsor is likely to result in such deleterious effects as harmto living resources and marine life, hazards to humanhealth, hindrance to marine activities, including fish-ing and other legitimate uses of the sea, impairmentof quality for use of the sea water and reduction of amenities’. Williams (1996) criticized the division of pollution into categories (e.g., air, water, land etc.) andcommented that there is only Ô one pollution’ becauseevery pollutant, whether in the air, or on land tendsto end up in the ocean. Production and emissions of pollutants are usually derived from human settlements,resource uses and interventions, such as infrastruc-tural development and construction, agricultural activ-ities, industrial developments, urbanization, tourismetc. Contaminants of major concerns include persis-tent organic pollutants, nutrients, oils, radionuclides,heavy metals, pathogens, sediments, litters and debrisetc. (Williams, 1996). Categorization of pollution onlyfacilitates discussion; most contaminants are interre-lated and jeopardize the environment and organisms,at a same way and scale, regardless of the source of contamination.Most of the coastal areas of the world have beenreported to be damaged from pollution, significantlyaffecting commercial coastal and marine fisheries.Therefore, control of aquatic pollution has been iden-tified as an immediate need for sustained managementand conservation of the existing fisheries and aquaticresources. Unfortunately, the pollution problem, as de-scribed by Williams (1996), is characterized by inter-connectedness, complicated interactions, uncertainty,conflicts and constraints, making it difficult to controlthe problem. Moreover, because scientific knowledge onmarine pollution is patchy, knowledge gaps have beenidentified as one of the major problems in introducingeffective management strategies for its control. Thepresent paper focuses on three objectives: (1) to provide * Corresponding author. Tel.: +81-075-753-6225; fax: +81-075-753-6229. E-mail address: Shahidul Islam).0025-326X/$ - see front matter Ó 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/ Pollution Bulletin 48 (2004) 624–649  a review on the major areas of coastal and marine pol-lution with respect to their impacts on the ecosystemand living resources in general; (2) to synthesize infor-mation on the present status of the coastal and marinefisheries affected by pollution; and (3) to synthesize aconceptual model for better management of pollutionfor sustainable utilization of these resources. 2. Major pollutants and potential impacts  2.1. Fertilizers, pesticides and agrochemicals Agricultural activities are reported to contributeabout 50% of the total pollution source of surface waterby means of the higher nutrient enrichment, mainlyammonium ion (NH 4 ) and NO 3 derived from agricul-tural inputs. Ammonia constitutes a major contributorto the acidification of the environment, especially inareas with considerable intensive livestock farming.Wastes, manures and sludges, through biological con-centration processes, can supply soils with 100 timesmore hazardous products than do fertilizers for theequivalent plant nutrient content (Joly, 1993). The hugeincreases in fertilizer use worldwide over the past severaldecades are well documented. Manure produced bycattle, pigs and poultry are used as organic fertilizerworldwide. To this is added human excreta, especially insome Asian countries where animal and human excretaare traditionally used in fish culture as well as on soils.In areas where intensive monoculture is practiced,pesticides are used as a standard method for pest con-trol. Although the list of pesticides in use (Table 1) is bigenough, the largest usage tends to be associated with asmall number of pesticide products. The underlying factof the pesticides usage in relation to pollution is thatonly a very small fraction of all applied pesticides be-comes directly involved in pesticide mechanisms, i.e.,unless the compounds are rapidly degradable, most of the pesticides find their way as residues in the environ-ment (Duursma and Marchand, 1974). In fact, most of the pesticides are not rapidly degradable because of technical reasons, i.e., rapid degradation might reducetheir applicability. Therefore, it is likely that a largevolume of pesticide residues accumulate into the envi-ronment and the process is continuous. Duursma andMarchand (1974) reported an estimated world produc-tion of DDT about 2.8 · 10 6 tons of which 25% (7 · 10 5 tons) is assumed to be released into the world ocean.Significant contributions to aquatic pollution fromagricultural sources are made by a few Asian countrieswith higher agricultural crop productions. It has beenreported that about 9000 metric tons of different pesti-cides and more than 2 million metric tons of fertilizersare used annually in Bangladesh and at present about1800 tonsyear À 1 of pesticide residues are added to thecoastal waters through runoff. Similar figures can beexpected from India, Myanmar, Indonesia and China.Pesticides and their residues are reported to be amongthe most devastating agents for aquatic ecosystems andorganisms affecting all levels of the food chain from thelowest to the top level (Duursma and Marchand, 1974).The two principal mechanisms associated with the ef-fects of agricultural wastes are bioconcentration (accu-mulation of chemical from the surrounding medium intoan organism by virtue of the lipophilicity of manychemicals) and biomagnification (increasing concentra-tion of a chemical as food energy is transformed withinthe food chain). As smaller organisms are eaten by lar-ger organisms, the concentration of pesticides and otherchemicals are increasingly magnified in tissue and otherorgans. Very high concentrations can be observed in toppredators, including man. The occurrence of pesticideresidues in different organisms of the food chain startswith the first link of marine phytoplankton in whichrelatively high levels of DDT and analogues can occur.The ecological effects of pesticides are varied and areoften complex. Effects at the organism or ecological levelare usually considered to be an early warning indicatorof potential human health impacts. The important pointis that many of these effects are chronic, are often notnoticed by casual observers, yet have consequences forthe entire food chain. Major effects include death of theorganism, cancers, tumors and lesions on fish and ani-mals, reproductive inhibition or failure, suppression of immune system, disruption of endocrine system, cellularand molecular damage, teratogenic effects, poor fishhealth marked by low red to white blood cell ratio,excessive slime on fish scales and gills, etc., intergener-ational effects, other physiological effects such as eggshell thinning. These effects are not necessarily causedsolely by exposure to pesticides or other organic con-taminants, but may be associated with a combinationof environmental stresses such as eutrophication andpathogens.The European Environment Agency (EEG, 1994)reported links with the toxicity of river water caused byrunoff of agricultural pesticides to the Zooplank-ton Daphnia magna . In the Great Lakes of NorthAmerica bioaccumulation and magnification of chlori-nated caused the disappearance of top predators suchas eagle and mink and deformities in several speciesof aquatic birds. The World Wide Fund for Nature(WWF, 1993) reported that a significant amount of anestimated 190,000 tons of agricultural pesticides plusadditional loadings of non-agricultural pesticides thatare released by riparian countries bordering the NorthSea, eventually are transported into the North Sea by acombination of riverine, groundwater, and atmosphericprocesses. WWF further reported that the increased rateof disease, deformities and tumors in commercial fishspecies in highly polluted areas of the North Sea and Md. Shahidul Islam, M. Tanaka / Marine Pollution Bulletin 48 (2004) 624–649 625  Table 1Pesticides and agrochemicals that are in use worldwide and are of major environmental concernsPesticide Trade name TypeAcifluorfen Blazer, Carbofluorfen HerbicideAlachlor Lasso HerbicideAldicarb Temik InsecticideAldrin HHDN, Octalene InsecticideAmetryn Gesapax HerbicideAtraton Gesatamin HerbicideAtrazine AAtrex HerbicideBarban Carbyne HerbicideBaygon Propoxur, Unden, Blattanex InsecticideBentazon Basagran HerbicideBromacil Borea, Hyvar, Uragan HerbicideButachlor Machete HerbicideButylate Sutan HerbicideCarbaryl Sevin InsecticideCarbofuran Furadan, Caraterr InsecticideCarboxin D-735, DCMO, Vitavax FungicideChloramben Amiben, Vegiben HerbicideChlordane Gold Crest C-100 InsecticideChlorobenzilate Akar, Benzilian AcaricideChloroneb Terraneb FungicideChlorothalonil Bravo, Daconil FungicideChlorpropham Chloro IPC, CIPC, Furloe, Sprout NP HerbicideCyanazine Bladex, Fortrol HerbicideCycloate Ro-Neet Herbicide2,4 Dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid Aqua Kleen HerbicideDalapon Dowpon, Ded-Weed Herbicide2,4-DB Butyrac, Embutox HerbicideDCPA Chlorthal-dimethyl Dachtal Herbicide4,4-DDD and DDT TDE, Rothane InsecticideDiazinon Spectracide, Basudin, AG-500 Insecticide3,5-Dichlorobenzoic acid Dalapon Herbicide1,2-Dichloropropane Propylene, Dichloride, 1,2-DCP Soil fumigant cis -1,3 Dichloropropene Telone II NematocideDichlorprop Maizeox RK HerbicideDichlorvos Herkol, Nogos, Phosvit InsecticideDieldrin Heod, Dielorex, Octalox InsecticideDinoseb DNBP, Dinitro, Premerge HerbicideDiphenamid Dymid, Enide HerbicideDisulfoton Dysyston, Dithiodemeton, Ditio-systox InsecticideDiuron DCMU, Karmex HerbicideEndosulfan I Thiodan, Cyclodan, Malix InsecticideEndrin Nendrin InsecticideEPTC EPTAM HerbicideEthoprop Prophos, Ethoprophos InsecticideEthylene dibromide (EDB) Bromofume, Nephis InsecticideEthylene thiourea (ETU) ETU FungicidesEtridiazole Koban, Terrazole FungicideFenamiphos Nemacur Inemacury InsecticideFenarimol Bloc, Rimidin, Rubigan FungicideFluometuron Cotoron HerbicideFluridone Sonar HerbicideGlyphosate (4) Roundup HerbicideAlpha-, beta-, delta-, and gamma-HCH(Lindane)gamma BHC, Lindane InsecticideHeptachlor (2) Velsicol 3-chlorochlorene InsecticideHexachlorobenzene Anti-Carie, HCB FungicideHexazinone Velpar HerbicideLinuron Afalon HerbicideMerphos Folex DefoliantMethiocarb Mesurol, Draza InsecticideMethomyl Lannate, Nudrin InsecticideMethoxychlor Malate InsecticideMethyl paraoxon E-600, Mintacol Insecticide626 Md. Shahidul Islam, M. Tanaka / Marine Pollution Bulletin 48 (2004) 624–649  coastal waters of the United Kingdom since the 1970sis consistent with effects known to be caused by expo-sure to pesticides.  2.2. Domestic and municipal wastes and sewage sludge By far the greatest volume of waste discharged to themarine environment is sewage. Sewage effluent containsindustrial waste, municipal wastes, animal remains andslaughterhouse wastes, water and wastes from domesticbaths, utensils and washing machines, kitchen wastes,faecal matter and many others. Huge loads of suchwastes are generated daily from highly populated citiesand are finally washed out by the drainage systemswhich generally open into nearby rivers or aquatic sys-tems. The industrial areas are generally highly populatedor the industries are usually established near highlypopulated areas. Therefore, higher pollution load fromindustrial sources is generally accompanied by a higherrisk of domestic and sewage pollution. Robson and Neal(1997) studied the water quality in term of pollutionfrom industrial and domestic sources and reportedhigher pollution loads from domestic sources where theindustrial pollution loads are also higher. Cheevapornand Menasveta (2003) reported BOD loads of 659– 34,376 tonsyear À 1 , resulting from municipal and indus-trial wastes in the Gulf of Thailand. It is reported thatthe annual production of sewage is as high as 1.8 · 10 8 m 3 for a population of 800,000. Taking the organicmatter load to be 20 mgl À 1 in the sewage (Duursma andMarchand, 1974), this gives an annual release of 3.6 · 10 3 tons of organic matter. The approximate amount of sewage produced by the total world population and theorganic loads released from that sewage can now beeasily calculated.Sewage contains in itself a diverse array of pollutingagents including pathogens (Table 2), organic sub-stances, heavy metals and trace elements (Table 3) andso on, which pose direct and indirect effects on ecosys-tems and organisms. Sewage is primarily organic innature and, therefore, subject to bacterial decay. As aresult of this bacterial activity, the oxygen concentra-tion in the water is reduced, thus sewage is said to havea high BOD. This can starve aquatic life of the oxygenit needs and also leads to the breakdown of proteinsand other nitrogenous compounds, releasing hydrogen Table 1 ( continued  ) Pesticide Trade name TypeMetolachlor Dual, Primext HerbicideMetribuzin Sencor, Sencorex, Lexone HerbicideMevinphos Phosdrin InsecticideMDK 264 Van Dyke-264 SynergistMolinate Ordram HerbicideNapropamide Devrinol HerbicideNeburon Kloben Herbicide4-Nitrophenol – Fungicide/insecticidesNorflurazon Zorial, Evital, Solicam HerbicideOxamyl Vydate, DPX-1410 InsecticidePentachlorophenol (PCP) Dowicide Insecticide/herbicidePebulate Tillam HerbicidePermethrin Ambush, Perthrine InsecticidePicloram Tordon HerbicidePrometon Gesagram HerbicidePrometryn Gesagard, Caparol HerbicidePronamide Kerb HerbicidePropachlor Bexton, Ramrod HerbicidePropanil Rogue HerbicidePropazine Gesomil, Milogard, Primatol HerbicidePropham IPC, Beet-Kleen HerbicideSimazine Princep, Aquazine, Gesatop, Weedex HerbicideSimetryn Gy-bon HerbicideStirofos Gardona, Tetrachlorvinphos InsecticideSwep SWEP HerbicideTebuthiuron Graslan, Spike HerbicideTerbacil Sinbar HerbicideTerbufos Counter InsecticideTerbutryn Igram, Preban Herbicide2,4,5-TP (trichlorophenol) Silvex HerbicideTriademefon Bayleton FungicideTricyclazole Beam, Bim, Blascide FungicideTrifluralin Treflan HerbicideVernolate Vernam Herbicide Md. Shahidul Islam, M. Tanaka / Marine Pollution Bulletin 48 (2004) 624–649 627  sulphide and ammonia, both of which are potentiallytoxic to marine organisms in low concentrations. Solidssuspended in sewage may also blanket river and sea bedspreventing respiration of the benthic flora and fauna.Decaying organic matter and nutrients in sewage en-hance plant growth. Excessive plant growth and oxygendepletion can lead to alterations in ecosystem structureand these are both features of eutrophication. Thedumping of sewage sludge at sea is another cause of ecological damage. Dependent on hydrography, sludgecan smother the benthos, increase biomass, decreasespecies biodiversity and increase heavy metal concen-trations.Sewage effluent entering coastal waters contains avariety of harmful substances including viral, bacterialand protozoan pathogens, toxic chemicals such as or-ganochlorines, organotins and heavy metals, and avariety of other organic and inorganic wastes (HMSO,1990). Domestic sewage discharged into the coastalwaters contains a particularly unhealthy mix of bothharmless and infectious microorganisms. Pathogensfound in sewage include Salmonella spp., Escherichiacoli, Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudo-monas aeruginosa , the fungi Candida , and viruses such asenterovirus, hepatitis, poliomyelitis, influenza and her-pes. Bacteria and viruses are present in large concen-trations in raw sewage: up to 4 · 10 9 bacteria 1– 1000 · 10 4 virus per liter of raw sewage (HMSO, 1990).Numerous studies have indicated that the greater thesewage contamination and exposure of people, thehigher the risk of contracting ear, nose and throatinfections and stomach upsets such as gastroenteritis.Faecal streptococci bacteria are more closely associatedwith human sewage and their presence in a sample isbelieved to be a better indicator of sewage contamina-tion than Coliforms. Faecal streptococci can cause ill-ness, especially gastroenteritis. Other disease-causingagents which may be present in sewage include entericviruses, Salmonella and the Hepatitis A virus.Bossart et al. (1990) suggested that some viruses aretransferred to marine mammals by human sewage andare zoonotic in nature. Influenza, respiratory synctialvirus, herpes, cytomegalovirus and measles are alsozoonotic viruses capable of infecting marine mammals.Bacteria associated with sewage water contaminatedwith human pathogens (Olivieri, 1982), which have beendocumented in marine mammals, include: Escherichiacoli  , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Vibrio cholera and Salmonella sp. (Table 2). Sewage-borne fungi could also,theoretically, infect marine mammals living in contam-inated waters. Candida sp. is a common component of sewage wastes and has been isolated from both captiveand wild cetaceans.A common short-term response by fish to a sewageoutfall is an initial increase in abundance around thepoint of discharge. There is a short-term increase innutrients and, hence, prey items for the fish and, onoccasions an increase in habitat complexity, which maycause an initial population rise in fish species. Yet, asnutrient levels increase so does the chance of algalbloom development, toxin production and a corre-sponding decrease in dissolved oxygen. Long-term ef-fects include phytoplankton biomass increases and largescale decreases in species diversity with benthic and fishcommunities (Bonsdorff et al., 1997). Fish species feed-ing in water contaminated by algal toxins will absorbthese toxins and are subject to mass mortality (Her-nandez et al., 1998). One of the most crucial problemscaused by the sewage wastes is the loss of amenitywhich, therefore, affects the recreational use of water.Debris associated with sewage probably has the highestmonetary cost associated with its presence on beachesand loss of tourism.  2.3. Oils Oil pollution has been receiving increasing attentionsince the middle of the 19th century with the increase intanker operations and oil use and frequent marine tan-ker collisions and accidents resulting in oil spills. Mil-lions of oils are being added into the coastal and marine Table 2Major sewage-related bacterial species recorded from marinemammals(Grillo et al., 2001)Bacteria species Host species Aeromonas hydrophila Cetaceans Vibrio cholerae Cetaceans Staphylococcus aureus Cetaceans Salmonella spp. Cetaceans/pinnipeds Pseudomonas aeringinosa Cetaceans Proteus mirabilis Cetaceans Mycobacterium tuberculosis Pinnipeds Leptospira spp. Pinnipeds Klebsiella spp. Cetaceans/pinnipeds Escherichia coli  Cetaceans/pinnipeds Enterobacter spp. Cetaceans Clostridium spp. Cetaceans Citrobacter freundii  Cetaceans Alcaligens spp. CetaceansTable 3Concentrations of major heavy metals and trace elements in sewage(Grillo et al., 2001)Trace metals in sewage Concentrations (mgl À 1 )Arsenic <0.1Cadmium <0.02Chromium 0.1–0.5Copper 0.2–0.5Lead 0.08–0.4Mercury – Nickel <0.02Silver <0.02Zinc 0.4–0.7628 Md. Shahidul Islam, M. Tanaka / Marine Pollution Bulletin 48 (2004) 624–649
Related Documents
View more...
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks

We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

More details...

Sign Now!

We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!