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Genetic resources of grain legume crops in N.I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry

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Genetic resources of grain legume crops in N.I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry
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    Report of a Working Group on Grain Legumes First meeting 14 16July1995 Copenhagen enmark T Gass M Ambrose J Le Guen A. Hadjichristod lou and S. Blixt compilers . -; 1-.~ ECP/GR  REVIEW O NATIONAL COLLECTIONS 77 Genetic resources of grain legume crops in N I Vavilov All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Industry B S Kurlovich N.I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry, 190000, St. Petersburg, Russia In 1994 the N.1. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry VIR) celebrated its lOOth anniversary. The history of the Institute and its activities are closely associated with the name of Nikolai Vavilov, for whom the problem of plant genetic resources was always of the highest importance. In order to prevent the erosion of natural genetic diversity, and preserve it for future generations, major efforts are being made to collect, evaluate, characterize and store cultivated plants and their wild relatives in the Institute's genebank. Plant collecting expeditions in Iran and the Pamirs mountains, carried out by N. Vavilov in 1916, served as the basis of the grain legume crops collection: pea, chickpea, lentil and faba bean. The Department of legume crops at VIR was organized in 1924. urrently the collection of 43 222 accessions (Table 1), belonging to 15 genera and 16 species of the family of legumes (Table 2), includes pea, soyabean, vetch, lupin, faba bean, lentil, everlasting pea, chickpea, cowpea, mung bean, kidney bean and other legumes that are maintained and studied. The Genebank contains genetic resources from all five continents, but most of the accessions were collected on the territory of the former USSR and in Europe (Table 3). There is frequent exchange with genetic resources collections at other genebanks. n average of 40% of the material is duplicated at other genebanks. The remainder is kept at the Institute, but is ready to be shared with colleagues. Some accessions have a long vegetative period; there is no resistance to cold and there is great difficulty in regenerating them in Russia. Accessions kept in VIR collections depend upon the type of crop (Table 4). Peas are basically represented as gene resources, plant breeding resources and breeding varieties. The lupin collection contains both wild and local forms. Gene resources for haricot bean are represented by 80% local and unknown forms. The staff of the department selects new, valuable sources and donors for plant breeding, studies inheritance of plant characters, works out advanced methods for breeding practice and performs theoretical research on taxonomy and evolution. The staff also maintains accessions under viable conditions and reproduces them for long-term storage. The Department supplies breeders with initial plant material and prepares catalogues and recommendations on methodology. Summaries of results of scientific work appear in volumes of: Theoretical basis of plant breeding , a series dedicated to the different legumes. Fundamental methodology laboratories of the Institute assist legume crop experts and examine chemical composition, drought and cold tolerance, resistance to disease, pests, unfavourable environment and soil acidity. Collections are studied and regenerated at experiment stations situated within the country's different ecogeographical zones. There are eight experiment stations where staff study and regenerate grain legume crops collections using the same unified method of investigation. Accessions for regeneration are sown on an average of every 4-5 years. The main purpose is to have enough seeds to send to the different institutes and farms around the world, to maintain accessions of the world collection under viable conditions and to provide long-term storage. Presently, about 8000 to. 10 000 accessions are sent to different organizations around the world every year.  78 REPORT OF WORKING GROUP ON LEGUMES There are differences between the crops. Soyabean accessions are sown for regeneration every 2 3 years; pea every 5 years, lentil and bean every 7-8 years. These high regeneration frequencies are due to lack of modem equipment for longterm storage of seeds at low temperature. The basic working collections of legume crops are stored in St Petersburg in laminated plastic bags at room temperature. Table 1. Composition of the VIR collection of grain legumes, 1January1995 Number of accessions Genera Total accessions Basic catalogue Introduction temporary) catalogue Pisum L Glycine Willd. Vicia L Lupinus L. Phaseolus L icer L Faba Mill. Lathyrus L Lens Mill. Vigna Savi Dolichos L. etc. Total 7983 7536 3138 2970 10500 2631 1707 1195 3288 1951 323 43222 6805 6182 3108 2427 7319 2263 1261 857 2900 1352 155 34629 1178 1354 30 543 3181 368 446 338 388 599 168 8593 Table 2. Specific composition of the VIR collection of leguminous crops. Genera Lupinus L Vicia L Lathyrus L Glycine Willd. Phaseolus L. Faba Mill. icer L Pisum L Vavilovia Stev.) Fed. Lens Mill. Vigna Savi Dolichos L ajanus DC. yamopsis DC. Ervilia Link. Total: 15 Number of species: in the VIR collection 60 54 19 5 5 1 2 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 1 161 total described in the world) 250 150 150 8 70 1 23 2 1 5 50 30 1 1 743 Table 3. Com2osition of the VIR collection of leguminous crops in basic catalogue. Accessions from: Total no. Former Genera accessions USSR Euroee Asia Africa America Australia Pisum L. 6805 2908 2461 646 264 479 47 Phaseolus L 7319 2239 2600 1178 202 1000 100 Lupinus L. 2427 690 940 20 60 677 40 icer L. 2263 823 277 767 264 129 3 Lens Mill. 2900 1114 588 860 200 110 28  REVIEW OF N TION L COLLECTIONS 9 During 1995 IPGRI helped the Genebank acquire modem refrigerators and equipment for drying and packing of seeds. Thanks to IPGRI, long-term storage can now be organized for seed accessions at low temperatures (-15 to -20°C). Apart from the above, about 25 000 accessions (60 ) have been deposited in the old National Seed Storage Facility of the Kuban Experiment Station, where they are preserved at +4°C. able 4 Type of accessions in the VIR collection of legume crops. Pisum Phaseolus Lupinus icer Lens No. of accessions 6805 7319 2427 2263 2900 Wild forms No. 15 490 2 0.2 0 21 0.1 0 Local and unknown No. 5913 350 1669 2088 0 80 16 73.9 72 Breeding varieties No. 1805. 181 120 122 812 26.8 3 4 5 28 Plant breeding resources No. 2000 1225 1347 342 29 17 56 15 0 Gene resources No. 3000 90 128 44 0 3 6 0 Five experiment stations have been lost as a result of the disintegration of the former USSR and there has been difficulty regenerating accessions of soyabeans, haricot, mung bean, etc., as all have a long vegetative period. We would like to give these accessions to other genebanks for preservation. We are in favour of such sharing of tasks between genebanks in order to raise efficiency and reduce costs. Passport information on all accessions has been listed in the Basic Catalogue and Introduction, or Temporary, Catalogue. Ten years ago the descriptors list was worked out for every genus of the legume crops. Presently we use international descriptors, which are better. Two years ago, the Department of Leguminous Crops received a computer IBM-486/SX, which is used for documentation of the legume collections. Currently, computerization of passport data, according to information presented in Table 5, is in process. This information includes all accessions belonging to all generas and species and will be computerized by the end of this year. The Institute has an Information Department (Head of Dept. Dr Razorionov) which organizes methodological assistance. Development of a software system is planned within the next 2 years, in support of the establishment, maintenance and analysis of a computerized databases of plant germplasm collections. The goal is to make data on the collections immediately available to breeding centres, and to facilite data exchange with other genebanks. Pis u Among grain legumes, pea is the main crop cultivated in Russia. A pea collection of over 7000 accessions from all the countries where this crop is cultivated is stored in the Department.  8 REPORT OF WORKING GROUP ON LEGUMES The Pisum collection is studied in VIR s experimental network in the different geographical zones of Russia: at Pushkin Laboratories and Pavlovsk Experiment Station, near St Petersburg, Moscow Division, Yekaterinino Experiment Station, Tambov Province, and Krymsk Experiment Breeding Station, Krasnodar Territory. During the last few years, experiments were conducted to determine resistance in pea to phanomyces root rot, Bruchus pisorum L. and to damage by lima bean pod borer. Resistance in pea to spring drought was also examined. The phenotypic variation, in main commercially valuable characters in pea has also been investigated. Experiments have been carried out to determine biochemical seed properties in vegetable pea and amino acid protein composition in pea varieties of different srcins. Great emphasis is placed on searching for initial material for breeding peas with indehiscent pods with tendrils and for breeding peas for fodder. A genetic collection of Pisum is being established, within the framework of the Institute s programme as one of the projects of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences. Accessions, where the genetic structure is known are included in the collection. Most accessions were previously received from major genebanks: The Nordic Gene Bank, John Innes Centre, Wiatrowo and from some institutions of the former USSR. The creation of a database related to this collection is now in progress on an IBM computer using dBASE4 format with 10 fields. Currently interest is focused on the .research programme on genetic studies of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Particular attention is devoted to the breeding of multi marker lines with the sym-locus from a non-nodulating gene. Table 5 Description of the grain legume passports databases (in VIR). No. Full name Field type, size Abbreviations 1 Introduction number C 8 INTNUM 2 Catalogue number CATNUM 3 Introduction prefix C 2 INPREF Codes: 0 - domestic introduction 3 - foreign introduction 4 Crop name 5 Botanical name 6 Accession name 7 Country the accession came from (for 8 9 10 11. 12. domestic introduction the region is indicated) Research organization through which the accession was sent Name of the person in charge of sending the plant material Country of srcin Date of the registration of the plant material Methods of involvement of plant material C40 BOTNAM CO MN AM NATREG ORGANI PERSON ORIGIN REGDAT method Codes: 1 - requests 2 - expeditions, 3 - cooperations (exchange), 4 -embassy advisers,. 5 others 13. Type of accession status Codes: 1 - wild 2 - local, 3 - breeding material, 4 - plant breeding resources, 5 - gene resource 14. Habitat LIFO RM Codes: 1 - spring 2 - winter 3 - intermediate 4 - perennial 5 - annual
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