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Foreign policy of small states: A case study from carribbean states.

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Foreign policy of small states: A case study from carribbean states.
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   Foreign policy of small states-  A case study from Caribbean states Abstract: The small states are fighting with a view to altering their fortune because of their economic, political, military; problem. It’s a difficult task to maximize their outcome from the international level because of their lackage in the multisectors of the state. !s"mall Island #eveloping "tates $"I#"%, the very nature of these vulnerable countriescombined with other endogenous and exogenous factors, have historically posed challenges in terms of their capability and capacity to engage effectively and efficientlyin the international arena. &owever, globalization and the development of the Information "ociety, in part through the pervasive nature of Information and 'ommunication Technologies $I'Ts%, has impacted the nature and scope of diplomacy,bringing to the fore new issues and actors and creating a global !rena which not only potentially compounds such challenges, but also facilitates the proliferation of new ones.This paper will examine small states foreign policy with solving the debate on small  states, defining the foreign policy, introducing with the fourteen 'aribbean states byuttering about the social, economic, and political conidian, highlighting various interest  such as politicalsecurity, economicsocial, strategic linkage, and diplomatic. (inallythese argue the limitation in making foreign policy and draft some recommendations for enhancing the strength of the foreign policy of small 'aribbean nations. Introduction Although there is the growing recognition that a wider  1  definition of the Caribbean may be more comprehensive in the increasingly globalized international system, reflecting theacknowledgement of not ust the increased importance of non-traditional hemisphericdiplomatic partners, for the purposes of this paper, which focuses on the characteristics of  1   !rofessor "orman #irvan, former Association of Caribbean $tates %AC$& $ecretary #eneral defines the greater Caribbean region as 'those states comprising the entire Caribbean (asin, including )he (ahamas, and the entire littoral %*e+ico, Central America, !anama, Columbia, enezuela, #uyana, $uriname and French #uiana. /l #ran Caribe  small state foreign policy, the Caribbean states referred to will be the narrower constructof those constituting the CA0C2* region Although the grouping has begun its ownefforts at widening its composition beyond the traditional Anglophone Caribbean, a broader definition of the greater Caribbean includes states which, whilst they aredeveloping countries, are not all small countries Caribbean states face the samechallenges of other developing countries3 however these are often e+acerbated by thecharacteristics of small island states Although engaged in a global system in whichtheoretically is based on the e4uality of states3 in practice, power distribution and other factors impact on the effective participation of small states in this arena t is argued 5  thatthese states have little recourse to change their position within the wider world systemand conse4uently is predetermined by the very nature of the system itself to operate on a peripheral basis)hese small developing states, born out of a historical condition of colonialism3 its processes and institutions, tend to have little recourse to the traditional realist options of significant military and economic power 6owever, there is the potential throughdiplomacy and soft power to surmount challenges, limitations and the pessimistic predetermined lot assigned )he small island problemati4ue of Caribbean states of vulnerability and capacity with respect to their sustainable development, their international relations and diplomacy is a key concern of these states nternalvulnerabilities, linked to their small size include environmental, open economies andlimited diversification, inade4uate and weak institutional capacity and capabilities3 whilste+ogenous challenges are related to the globalization of the international system 7hatconstitutes a small state has been an ongoing debate in the literature From factorsranging from small land mass, insignificant military and economic power and populationsize, a conceptual small state definition has evolved based mainly on population size,although other factors are taken into account %$anders, 5889&)he definition used for this presentation shall be that of the Commonwealth $mall states according to this report arethose of population size 19 million inhabitants or under 7hile this definition generally 5  As postulated in 7orld $ystems )heory For further information see mmanuel 7allerstein ;  describes the states of the region, <amaica with a population in e+cess of 19 million ise+cluded and as such level of development should also be taken into account Foreign policy Define )he phrase =foreign policy> is a combination of two separate words- =foreign> and=policy> (ut that does not mean that a state>s foreign policy is =foreign> to the hopes andaspiration of the people of that state ?sually by =policy> we mean certain courses of action for the purpose of attaining specific goals and obectives As padelford, @incoinand olvey say: 'policy is the overall of the purposes by which a state translates its broadlyconceived goals and interests into specific courses of action in order to achieve itsobectives and preserve its interests   A state>s overall policy is divided into domestic policy and foreign policy Conceptually, Foreign policy is that part of a state>s national policy which relates to the e+ternal environment n a nutshell, as it has nicely beene+pressed by the nineteenth centuries !russian diplomat and statement prince 2tto von(ismarck the e+tension of domestic policy, we may state that it consists of the courses of actions which a state usually undertakes in its efforts to carry out its national obectives beyond the limits of its own urisdiction    Definition of Small state $mall states suffer from a definitional problem in both theory and political practice because of their anomalous power capacities As numerous studies have argued, smallstates very in terms of territorial seize population density, market potential,administrative capacities, resource possession and mobilization, as well as degrees of geographical remoteness 9     "orman < !adelford, #orge A @incoln and @ee B 2lvey )he Bynamics of international  politics "ew ork: *acmillan publishing Co nc, third ed %1DE&, p, 581   Ahamed, /mauddin %/d& Foreign policy of (angladesh Bhaka: komol Gari prokashon, 588!1 9   Chong, Alan %588E& ')he foreign policy potential of ' small state soft power. information strategies. see at http:HHturinsgireuHuploadsHChong- 1I sep,11 p 5-  0eflecting on the essence of small states, their criteria of definition have differed fromstate to state $ince the beginning of modern small states studies, the raison ditre of thesestates as category of analysis has been 4uestioned )he answers given have always beenvery mi+ed, depending mostly on the theoretical backgroundJ the small concept has always been a relative term )he 4ualification of a state as smallonly makes sense in relation to large states 6owever, the conse4uence of being large or small state was not always ust relative Categorizations of states according to their  population used to be of crucial importance   J the significance of smallness depended on the nation of power and the nature of theinternational system Attempts to define small states have opened up scientific and political conundrums that have persisted to this day Bavid ital famously titled his 1DE book the ine4uality of states- a studyof the small power in the international relations in an attempt to 'spell out some of the practical political implications of the material ine4uality of states )he degree of a statesmaterial weakness translated proportionately into degree of diminished independencerelations7hile admitting its intrinsic imprecision, vital settled on the definition of small states viaa set of upper limitsJ a population of 18-19 million in the case of economically advanced countiesJ a population of 58-8 million in the case of underdeveloped countiesvital e+plain that he was concern with distinguishing the =small> from among the middle powers, and believed that states with populations under five million need not merit aseparate category of analysis since those with even fewer population would find the problems afflicting those within his ' upper limits. magnified )here were nuances to anotherwise realist dominated inception to research on small state At the seventeenth "obel symposium convened in "orway in 1DE8, paper addressed the states of small statesfrom western, non western and nonaligned angles    #oetschel, @aurent %5888& $mall $tates and the Common Foreign and $ecurity !olicy %CF$!& of the /?: A Comparative Analysis, (erne "0!5 !roect-85-8589 Final 0eport p-9 also see at wwwsnfchH"F!KarchiveHnfp5HworkingH7!1pdf 1I $ep, 11   J6ilding /ek>s contribution declared that ' small states. is a practical, conventionalterm useful as much but evades dominion and this is attributable to the 4uestion raised bytheir states of the legal and political utility of statehood in the international system J 0adovan ukadinovic % 1DE1& of the ?niversity of Lagreb e+plicated the link  between small, military and economic weakness, and an aspiration to democratizeinternational relations ' small and middle counties. serve their national interests bestwhen they oin a caucus for peace and progress J Annette fo+>s classic work 'the power of small states: Biplomacy in the world war two %1D9D& Fo+ argued that small state actorness could be defined in terms of 'local power whose demands are restricted to their own and immediately adacent areas, whichgreat powers e+ert their influence over wide areaJ a study produce by the ?nited "ations institute for training and research in 1DE14uated the ?" secretary general>s definition from 1D which defined small states areas, population and human and economic resource %?"?)A0 1DE1: 5D&J a commonwealth secretariat report on small states commented that 'for small states, particularly those that are remote from the maor markets and commercial and financialcenters, the communication revolution has crated the possibility of reducing traditional barriers and opened new opportunity )here also have 4uantitative criteria for 4ualifying a state as small or large- such asgeographic e+tent, seize of population, #"!, or number of diplomatic representations*oreover small states have relatively little influence on their autonomy in respect to thisenvironment is the relatively small )hey are less powerful than larger states and suffer from a power deficit ts a significant mater that in earlier times small states weretypically seen as suffering from power inferiority and dependence, )oday the seize of astate is a less important factors for its security than ever before Haiti
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