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Experimental investigation of bio-diesel on electronic direct fuel injection system

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    International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology   (IRJET)   e-ISSN: 2395 -0056   Volume: 03 Issue: 06 | June-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072   © 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 421 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF BIO-DIESEL ON ELECTRONIC DIRECT FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM Lava K.R. Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jain Institute of Technology, Davangere. Karnataka, India. Dr.Ganesh D B H O D & Vice Principal Department of Mechanical Engineering, G M Institute of Technology Davangere, Karnataka, India ---------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------  Abstract In the present scenario   bio-diesels have received a lot of attention as an alternate vehicular fuel. But the properties of bio-diesels are not the same as diesel fuels especially their high viscosity and low volatility. Also the bio-diesels have very poor atomization characteristics due to decreased cone angle during fuel injection. This paper relates the evaluating of EDI system at constant speed of 1500 rpm and compression ratio of 17.5 at different injection timing as well. The performance parameters such as brake thermal efficiency, carbon monoxide, NO x  and UBHC have been studied. The objective of this work is to study the effect on combustion and emissions of a bio-diesel fuelled Electronic direct fuel diesel engine. To use acid oil, a byproduct of vegetable oil refining process for biodiesel production and study its feasibility. To suggest a suitable process for producing biodiesel from acid oil. Characterization of the biodiesel produced. To study the engine performance, emission and combustion characteristics of the biodiesel and its blends. To conceptualize, built, test and demonstrate an electronic controlled direct fuel injection (EDI) system attached to existing single cylinder engine and conduct its performance, emission and combustion characteristics of the biodiesel and its blends. NOMENCLATURE PME : poly methyl ester CFD : computational fluid dynamics SF C : specific fuel consumption CV : calorific value CR : compression ratio IP : injection pressure Bth : brake thermal efficiency BP : brake power TDC : top dead centre BTDC : before top dead centre    International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology   (IRJET)   e-ISSN: 2395 -0056   Volume: 03 Issue: 06 | June-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072   © 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 422 CI : compression ignition HRR : heat release rate CA : crank angle I T : injection timing INTRODUCTION The world is presently confronted with two crises, the fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. The indiscriminate extraction and lavish consumption of fossil fuels have led to reduction in underground-based carbon resources. The sky rocketing oil prices exert enormous pressure on our resources and seriously affect our economy. The fact that petroleum based fuels will neither be available in sufficient quantities nor at reasonable price in the future, has revived interest in exploring the alternative fuel resources for diesel engines. Air motion plays a significant role in fuel - air mixing, combustion and emission processes [1]. Along with air motion, spray characteristics, spray angle, injection pressure and injection timing also have a significant role in diesel engine combustion. Swirl, squish and tumble are the important flow pattern of air motion. These patterns not only affect the fuel-air mixing and combustion process in diesel engines, but also have significant impact on combustion quality [2]. Swirl motion of the air is adequately achieved with good intake port design [3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9]. When there is swirl in the in-cylinder air, the swirl-squish interaction produces a complex turbulent flow field at the end of compression. This interaction is severe in reentrant combustion chamber design [10]. Intensification of turbulence is due to the highly turbulent squish of the air near TDC of compression. The intensification of turbulence leads to efficient combustion which in turn causes higher NO x  emission and less HC emissions [11]. The author however has not reported the effect of tumble. Better air mixing and combustion are possible with higher injection pressure. Higher injection pressure produces smaller fuel droplets which evaporate faster and mix rapidly with air. Bio-diesels play an important role in the on going balance between two major societal needs, viz., fuel economy and environment friendly Emissions. Bio-diesels can be produced in a way that does not cut into food supplies as Simorouba is non edible oil. Bio-diesel production reduces the dependency on imported oil and supports the agricultural sector [12]. The properties of bio-diesel are not the same as diesel fuels especially their high viscosity and low volatility. These properties strongly affect injection pressure injection timing and spray characteristics [13]. An increase in viscosity of bio-diesel will result in poor atomization characteristics due to decreased cone angle during fuel injection [14]. The pre - heating of vegetable oil gives better performance than raw vegetable oil. It has been observed that viscosity reduces exponentially with temperature. It has also been observed that when pre - heated vegetable oil is injected into the cylinder, spray pattern and atomization character has improved. The injection pressure has an effect on the spray formation of bio-diesel blends in CI engines [15]. Also studies have shown that the combustion characteristics alter with the changes in injection pressure. With the increase in pressure, the fuel penetration distance become longer and the mixture formation of the fuel-air was improved [16]. Also when the injection pressure is increased fuel particle diameter will be reduced. The mixing of fuel-air becomes better during ignition delay period. The combined effect of increased compression ratio, injection timing and injection pressure on    International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology   (IRJET)   e-ISSN: 2395 -0056   Volume: 03 Issue: 06 | June-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072   © 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 423 engine performance, combustion and emission characteristics was discussed [17]. It was observed with increased brake thermal efficiency, decreased SFC and decreased emission for PME 20. The optimum combination was observed at CR=19.1, IP = 240 bar and injection timing of 27 o  BTDC. Studies on the effect of injection pressure on the performance and emission characteristics of bio-diesel fuelled direct injection CI engine [19, 20]. It was observed that 250bar is the optimum injection pressure with B20 and B30 blends. CFD work on multi chambered piston has been carried out to analyze squish and tumble flow. A maximum of 13.1 m/sec squish velocity was observed at 10 o  crank angle before TDC. The increase in squish velocity was 31% compared to a standard engine. This work relates to engine design modification to induce turbulence by enhancing squish and tumble of charge during combustion. The present work has been undertaken to study the effect of injection pressure on performance and emission characteristics of multi - chambered piston CI engine. The experiments have been carried out at constant speed of 1500 rpm and compression ratio of 17.5 at 250 injection pressure and advance injection timing. The performance parameters such as SFC, brake thermal efficiency, carbon monoxide, NO x  and UBHC have been studied. Biodiesel is one of the best available sources to help fulfill the energy demand of the world. More than 350 oil-bearing crops are identified, among which few only considered as potential alternative fuels for diesel engines. Direct usability of biodiesel in the existing diesel engines, comparable engine performance and reduced emission profiles of biodiesel fuels, have attracted the world and made many countries including India to initiate and adopt several biodiesel development programmes by extending many tax concessions and carbon trading benefits in their countries. Biodiesel development is extremely important under present context, as diesel engines have become the main drive of all modern economic activity. Biodiesel is basically a mixture of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) compounds, which can be produced from any fatty acids. Though vegetable oils are good sources of fatty acids, they are also required for human consumption, pharmaceutical, paint and lubrication purposes. Table.1.Bio-Diesel Characteristics    International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology   (IRJET)   e-ISSN: 2395 -0056   Volume: 03 Issue: 06 | June-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072   © 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 424 EXPERIMENTAL SET UP The experiments were conducted on a Electronic Direct Fuel Injection (EDI) CI Engine   test rig shown in Fig.1. Fig.1 Experimental set up of CI engine test rig with EDI system Emissions and the characteristic noise of a diesel engine leads to its lower consumer acceptance of diesel engines for passenger cars. Electronic fuel injection is a technology that has the potential to change the way we perceive diesel engines. It features a high-pressure fuel rail line feeding the solenoid valve, as opposed to low-pressure fuel pump feeding unit injector or high-pressure fuel line to mechanical valves controlled by cams on the camshaft. To conduct laboratory scale experiments, on the common rail system, a single cylinder engine has to be used and also, the control for the fuel injection and the rail pressure has to be flexible. Thus, a control unit for the system was designed using which variables like injection timing, duration, rail pressure and multiple injection strategies can be easily achieved and controlled.
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