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  ESL TEACHERS’ BELIEFS ON THE USE OF L1 INTEACHING ENGLISH IN RURAL PRIMARYSCHOOLS Gracia Daniel Prof. Dr Nooreiny Maarof  Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia Abstract:  The use of students !other tongue "#$% in teaching E&# is an ongoing concerna!ong E&# teachers es'ecially in the rural schools. &ince English is considered as a foreignlanguage a!ong !any rural 'ri!ary school students, the use of the #$ is still considereddebatable in the conte(t of teaching English a!ong teachers. This research ai!s to identifyE&# teachers beliefs on the use of #$ in teaching rural 'ri!ary school students. The resultscould 'rovide infor!ation on )hat teachers believe and 'ractice in their o)n teaching of thelanguage. The research surveyed *+ teachers using a * ite!s #i-ert scale uestionnaire. Theresults sho)ed that the teachers believe that students #$ should be used in teaching Englishto rural 'ri!ary school students. Teachers ad!it that so!eti!es they too resort to the #$ inthe classroo!. /o)ever, the teachers e!'hasi0ed that the students should s'ea- Englishes'ecially )hen )or-ing in grou's, ho)ever they thin- that using #$ can contribute toEnglish #anguage learning. The research also revealed that teachers )ho teach English inrural 'ri!ary schools need a strong su''ort fro! the ad!inistrators to enable teachers toteach successfully the English language to young learners. Key!r"s:   beliefs, ESL teachers, L1, rural primary school I#tr!"$ct%!# The use of students !other tongue "#$% in teaching E&# is an ongoingconcern a!ong E&# teachers es'ecially in the rural schools. 1ccording to Nor!a0idah 2he Musa, Koo 3e) #ie 4 /a0ita 10!an "*5$*%, the schoolchildren inthe rural areas contact )ith English only during their English lessons in school.Their lac- of su''ort on using the language at ho!e and even a!ong their co!!unity sho)s that English is 'erceived as a difficult sub6ect to be gras'ed.Thus, !a-ing it hard to understand es'ecially its rules. &ince English is consideredas a foreign language a!ong !any rural 'ri!ary school students, the use of the #$is still considered debatable in the conte(t of teaching English a!ong teachers. The learning of English )as introduced in Malaysia by the 7ritishcolonialists in $8+5s and English is currently relegated as the second officiallanguage after 7ahasa Melayu, the national language. /o)ever, English languageco!'etency re!ains lo) as )as highlighted by Pri!e Minister Tun Dr. Mahathir Moha!ad in $88$ "Pillay, $889 in 1&E1N :ntegration and the ;ole of English#anguage Teaching by &trou'e 4 Ki!ura, *5$<%..1ccording to Pillay "$889% in the conference entitled =1&E1N :ntegrationand the ;ole of English #anguage Teaching> in *5$< "&trou'e 4 Ki!ura, *5$<%, the)ide ga's bet)een rural and urban English language learners have been lin-ed tothe li!ited e('osure to English. This indirectly su''orted the state!ent !ade by  Seminar Kebangsaan Sains dan Psikologi dalam Pendidikan 20-21 ac 201!, Kuching Park "otel, Kuching, Sara#ak  . 2hitravelu, N., &itha!'ara!, &., 4 Teh, &. "*55<% that suggested, =:n the rural areasin Malaysia, English is a foreign language because the rural child has very littleenviron!ental su''ort in his learning. This is because very fe) 'eo'le andinstitutions in the rural areas use English>. Gro)ing u' in an English language?'oor environ!ent give the rural school students the disadvantages to acuire English inschool and at the sa!e ti!e hindrance the English teachers in teaching the sub6ect.There have been a lot of researches conducted to e('lore E&# teachers beliefs in teaching on using the first language "#$% a!ong the native s'ea-ers allover the )orld, including Malaysia. /o)ever, fe) studies too- 'lace )ithin&ara)a- conte(t 'articularly in rural settings on E&# teachers beliefs on the use of #$.This have created a =curious> set of beliefs on )hat )or-s and )hat does not as Nishino "*5$*% stated that =teachers beliefs )ere situated in their o)n uniueteaching conte(ts>. Therefore, this research atte!'ts to identify E&# teachers beliefs on the use of #$ in teaching rural 'ri!ary school students, !erely at 7a-ong,Miri.7a-ong is an area situated at the outs-irts of Miri, &ara)a-. 1lthough it isunder Miri District Education @ffice, the location of the schools are far of reach.&o!e even do not have electricity )hile others do not have clean )ater su''ly.There are $* schools under the 0one, )ith !a6ority of the students are :bans. Theyco!e fro! the far!ers or oil 'al! 'lanters fa!ily. They live in the longhouses andtheir !other tongue "#$% is 7ahasa :ban. 1s for so!e of the Kedayans, their #$ is7ahasa Melayu &ara)a-. /o)ever, the 'u'ils learn 7ahasa Melayu in schools andEnglish )as seen as a foreign language "F#% to be learnt although the Govern!entof Malaysia granted it as the second language "#*%. Aith lac- of e('osure and vocabulary of the English language itself, E&#teachers face 'roble!s in delivering the -no)ledge to the students. Aith thedifferences of the language s'o-en and lac- of facilities, E&# teachers should bethin-ing out of the bo( so that the rural 'ri!ary school students )ill have the sa!eo''ortunities as the urban school students to get the best education 'ractices. @ne of the )ays suggested is to blend in )ith the society and learn their #$. This !ay hel'the E&# teachers during their teaching and learning sessions )hereas they can usethe #$ in e('laining certain ter!s or !eaning. Therefore, the findings of thisresearch )ill give !ore o'tions to E&# teachers in their teaching 'edagogies andenriching the education studies on English language and at the sa!e ti!e ta-e intoaccount the roles that should be 'layed by the school ad!inistrators in enabling theteachers to teach successfully the English language to young learners. L%terat$re Re&%eT'e!r%es !( La#)$a)e Lear#%#) Bygots-y develo'ed the &ociocultural Develo'!ent Theory in $8C9 )hichfocuses on the 'roduct of a childs social interaction. 1s his theory is !oved to theclassroo! settings, Bygots-y clai!ed that the 'u'ils learning and 'rogression!ainly ha''ens )ith those )ho has the sa!e one of Pro(i!al Develo'!ent "PD%as the!selves. :n $89$, Krashen had co!e u' )ith a !odel relating to secondlanguage acuisition, na!ely the Monitor Model. :n his theory, Krashen e!'hasi0ed   $%lmu Sains dan Psikologi emacu Pendidikan &bad ke 21' &n(uran) Program Eksekutif Sar(ana Pendidikan Sains dan Psikoogi, *akulti Pendidikan, +K on the differences bet)een language acuisition and language learning. #anguageacuisition )as defined as a subconscious 'rogression )hich ha''ens )hen theinteraction conducted in the target language "T#% is !eaningful and 'rovides anatural co!!unication )here the conveying of !essage is given an i!'ortant role.2ontrarily, language learning is a conscious 'rocess and 'u'ils are reuired tointeract and co!!unicate about linguistic rule of the T#. Further!ore, Krashen"$89<% insisted that the #$ should not be a''lied the classroo! so the students )illlearn and acuire fully the T# that they are learning. T'e *ebate /o)ever, the use of #$ in second language foreign language teaching "#*EF#% long to get attention by all language 'ractitioners. ;esearchers such as2ha!bers "$88$%, Ellis "$88% and Turnbull "*55$% su''orted the notation !ade byKrashen "$89<% and agreed on using too !uch #$ in the classroo! affects thelanguage learning 'rocess a!ong the students and slo) do)n their 'rogression onacuiring the #*. Even Ellis "$89% also stated that too !uch e('osure of the #$!ight rob learners chances to gain the in'ut in #*. &haring the sa!e thought )as#ittle)ood "$88*% and 7urden "*555% )ho ca!e to believe the use of students=!other tongue> led to the loss of an integral 'art of language learning. Not only ittoo- a)ay the 'rivilege of learning the T# in and outside the classroo!, it indirectlyde!otivated the students to learn the T# "Turnbull, *55$%.:n contrarily, des'ite all the strong disagree!ent on using #$ in the #* EF#classroo!, so!e still stand tall )ith their o'inions on using #$. 7eing the advocatesof #$ use, 1t-inson "$88% and 2oo- "*5$% 'refer a res'onsible #$ use )hich cansave classroo! ti!e. This in line )ith the clai!s !ade by Tang "*55*% andMu-attash "*55% that highlighted the i!'ortance of using #$ and the good i!'act it brings in #* EF# teaching. T'e Be+%e(s !( L1 7eliefs can be dee'ly 'lanted in teachers !inds and can hardly beingchanged. 1lthough it !ay be !odified, but they !ay still have effects on thedecisions !ade es'ecially related to curriculu! and classroo! 'ractices. 1ccordingto ing(ia "*5$5%, there )ere t)o !ain o''osing beliefs na!ely the target languagee(clusivity in teaching and allo)ing the #$ to be used as an aid. Many teachers hadtheir o)n stand regarding this t)o beliefs, )hether they )ere for or against it. 1s!any of the beliefs )ere for!ed earlier in life based on 'ersonal e('eriences, it )as 'articularly a 'o)erful and influential factor to the individual. The longer the belief has been 'art of a 'ersons belief structure, the !ore difficult it )as to change or !odify "2alderhead 4 ;obson, $88$H Pa6ares, $88*H Tille!a, $88%. Therefore, beliefs can be considered as the lens of the teachers to inter'ret -no)ledge that )illguide their behaviours and 'ractices in the classroo!. Ki! 1nh "*5$5% did a study to investigate the attitudes of Bietna!eseuniversity teachers to)ards using Bietna!ese "#$% in teaching English. 7ased on thefindings, the 'ractical use of #$ )as found to be necessary in so!e situations in  Seminar Kebangsaan Sains dan Psikologi dalam Pendidikan 20-21 ac 201!, Kuching Park "otel, Kuching, Sara#ak  . teaching English. 1l!ost all of the 'artici'ants su''orted the use of #$ in their classes, clai!ed that #$ could 'lay a 'ositive role in their classroo!. :n *5$$, Mah!oudi and 1!ir-hi0 did a study on the effect of using Persianin EF# classroo! in :ran. They !ade a co!'arison bet)een t)o teachers of t)odifferent classes on their teaching !ethods and the a!ount of #$ they used in theEnglish classes. 1s the first teacher heavily relied on translation to the #$, thereforehe !ore de'ended on the Gra!!ar?Translation Method. For the second teacher, heused lo)er a!ount of #$ in his teaching co!'ared to the first teacher. The secondteacher incor'orated grou' )or- and other audio and video teaching aid in hislesson. 7oth teachers also indicated that by using #$ in their teaching, it hel'ed thestudents to get a better grades in their e(a!ination. &ubseuently, McMillan and ;ivers "*5$$% have conducted an attitudesurvey )ith *8 native?English s'ea-er teachers at a a'anese university. The resultssu''orted the 'ositive role of #$ in enhancing cognition, co!!unication, and socialfunctions in language classroo!s. This buttress the 'oint !ade by 1nton andDica!illa "$888% that stated the use of #$ hel's learners to set u' su''ortivecollaboration a!ong friendsKayaoIlu "*5$*% e('lored the theoretical and 'ractical 'ositions on the useof #$ in English classroo! instruction at Karadeni0 Technical University. 1 great!a6ority of the teachers )ere found to ta-e a 'ractical and 'rag!atic 'osition on theuse of #$ in the classroo! instructions. This indirectly o''osed the 'o'ular belief of using the #$ )ill interfere the learning of #*. Follo)ing the sa!e 'ath of study,Mugadda! "*5$% did on the role of code s)itching to students #$ "1rabic% in E&#classroo!s. :t )as found that #$ has been useful in increasing the interactions bet)een teachers and students in E&# classroo! and hence facilitated the learning 'rocess.Follo)ing the studies )as a ualitative research done by &a!ar 4Morad-hani "*5$% in Ker!anshah, :ran. They did a study on teachers cognitive 'rocesses during code s)itching in the EF# classroo! )ith t)o !ale and t)ofe!ale English teachers fro! a 'rivate institute. Fro! the study, it sho)ed thatabout *CJ of the classes )ere conducted in #$. Teachers reasoned that they code?s)itched in order to hel' the students to co!'rehend and to !a-e verification on)hether the students understand 'ro'erly )hat have been taught in the classroo!. Mo-htar "*5$<% in his study at a Malaysian Polytechnic conte(t, did onlecturers and students beliefs in code s)itching, found out that the lecturersfreuently used re'etition and !essage ualification functions )hen code s)itching.They believed that it )ill eventually enhance the students understanding andindirectly save their ti!e fro! long e('lanation )henever the students are inhesitation. T'e I,-acts t! t'e R$ra+ Sc'!!+ St$"e#ts Des'ite the debate on )hether should or should not #$ being used inEnglish classroo!, the use of #$ actually has its i!'acts to students gro)th anddevelo'!ent. 7y using #$ in #* classroo!, it eventually )or-ed as a tool to reduceaffective filters "Meyer, *559H Nor!an, *559%. @ther than that, the use of #$ hel'edto !a-e higher cognitive ad6ust!ent a!ong the students )hile learning a certain T#.  < $%lmu Sains dan Psikologi emacu Pendidikan &bad ke 21' &n(uran) Program Eksekutif Sar(ana Pendidikan Sains dan Psikoogi, *akulti Pendidikan, +K 3a!a!oto?Ailson "$88C% stated that, if being used effectively, the #$ can be afacilitating factor to overco!e the assu!'tions created on the usage of #$. 7esides,7ut0-a!! "*55% indicated that the use of #$ gives a sense of security and stress?free a!ong the learners. :t is undoubtedly the greatest asset to hel' the learners intheir &#F# learning. Not only that, he also stated that a friendly &#F# at!os'here)as best acco!'lished through careful use of #$. Moreover, the use of #$ allo)edthe students to co!'are the rese!blances and differences bet)een #$ and &#T#and this literally hel'ed the! in enhancing their T# learning. Met'!"!+!)y &ince the ai! of this study is to identify the beliefs on the use of #$ inteaching rural 'ri!ary school students a!ong E&# teachers, a survey )ith *uestions )as distributed to *+ 'artici'ants. @nly the E&# teachers fro! the rural 'ri!ary schools in 7a-ong )ere chosen for this research. &ince there )ere only *+ 'artici'ants altogether, the result of this research cannot be generali0ed and acted asa re'resentative for the E&# teachers in rural 'ri!ary schools in &ara)a-. 1s !entioned earlier, there are $* rural 'ri!ary schools in 7a-ong. The7a-ong area )ere divided into t)o 'art, na!ely the 7a-ong /ilir and the 7a-ong/ulu. The 'ri!ary schools in this 0one )ere all considered as rural schools sincethey )ere situated in the outs-irt of Miri. There )ere < 'ri!ary schools under 7a-ong /ilir and another C schools including a 2hinese 'ri!ary school in 7a-ong/ulu. Therefore, for this research, only $$ of the 'ri!ary schools )ere chosen sincethe #$ that )as being defined in this research )as the 7ahasa :ban 7ahasa Melayu&ara)a- 7ahasa Melayu. Therefore, the researcher did not included the 2hineseschool since their #$ )as the Mandarin #anguage. 1!ong all the 'artici'ants, $+ of the! are !ale and another $5 are fe!ale,)ithin the age of *$ to +5. $C out of *+ are !a6oring in English. Aith the range of teaching e('eriences fro! $ to !ore than *$ years, the survey ho'es to s'ecify the beliefs held by the rural 'ri!ary school E&# teachers in 7a-ong, Miri in teachingthe rural 'ri!ary school students. For this research, it e!'loyed uantitative data gathering techniue. Theuestionnaire )as ada'ted fro! the studies conducted by ;olin?lan0iti and Barshney"*559%, Tang "*55*% and Kayaoglu et al. "*5$5% and have been !odified to a''ealthe conte(t of the rural 'ri!ary schools in 7a-ong, Miri. The uestionnaire servedas a !ediu! for the researcher to understand rural E&# teachers 'oint of vie) onthe actual rural 'ri!ary schools E&# classes scenario and hence deter!ined)hether or not the use of #$ hel's in E&# teachers teaching and the learning 'rocess of the rural 'ri!ary schools students. Using the < #i-ert?ty'e scale, the survey catered the beliefs of the rural 'ri!ary school E&# teachers on their freuency of using the students #$, the beneficial use to the students and the roles it 'lays in the classroo!. 1fter the 'ilotstudy )ith the 2ronbachs al'ha coefficient of 5.9<, the uestionnaire )ere given tothe 'artici'ants. 7efore attended the survey, the 'artici'ants )ere given a briefing onthe study. The uestionnaire )ere fully in English and the 'artici'ants )ere reuiredto choose their best ans)er based on their beliefs on the use of #$ in teaching the
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