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Enumerating the Status & Management Plan of Orchid Species of Makawanpur District

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Enumerating the Status & Management Plan of Orchid Species of Makawanpur District
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   Enumerating the Status & Management Plan of Orchid Species of Makawanpur District Researcher Mr. Ram Bichari Thakur Biodiversity & Climate Change Analyst The Sunrise Unity Development Center, Mahuliya-4, Saptari Submitted to District Forest Office , Makawanpur  Asar -19 , 2066  Foreword Orchids belong to the family Orchidaceae which is one of the largest families of flowering plants comprising more than 17000 species. Distributed throughout the globe , except in the polar regions , orchids are notably diversified in the moist tropics of both hemispheres , where the majority are epiphytes in forests . Most of the temperate and all of the alpine genera are terrestrial. Orchids are perennial or rarely annual, epiphytic (growing on tree trunks and branches) or terrestrial (growing on the ground) herbs generally with roots which have multilayered spongy tissue called velamen  . They are capable of absorbing and storing considerable quantity of moisture. In terrestrial species, the roots are often swollen into tubers, or stems form corms or rhizomes. Stems of epiphytic species are often thickened to form a pseudobulb with adventitious roots. Orchid species has been declining rapidly due to illegal harvesting, deforestation, frequent fire occurrence, heavy grazing, mal-practice of silviculture operation and other anthropogenic factors. To cope with such hazardous factors, natural forest habitat restoration and sound forest management system with sustainable harvesting practices are required. Five Year Operational Plan (F.Y. 2065/066 to 2069/070 ) of District Forest Office of Makawanpur District was approved by Department of Forests , Kathmandu in the condition of having detailed inventory of orchid species of the district. So, this study was carried out for approval from the Department of Forests, Kathmandu. The heartland of the Himalayas, Nepal, harbors more than 385 species of orchids. Out of them, Makawanpur district possesses 85 orchid species. Total permissible annual yield of orchid species from Makawanpur district is 183.13 metric tons. Out of them, 172.9 metric tons can be collected from Sal forest , 7.27 metric tons from Chir pine broadleaved mixed forest , 2.57 metric tons from Oak - Rhododendron forest and 1 metric ton from temperate conifer broadleaved mixed forest . I would like to thank Mr. Nabin Giri ( A.F.O. , Makawanpur district ) , Mr. Achyut Prasad Upadhyay ( Ranger, Makawanpur district) , Mr. Thir Bahadur Karki (A.F.O. , Makawanpur district ) , Mr. Dharma Singh Bohara ( Account Officer, District Forest Office, Makawanpur District ) , Mr. Jawahar Kurmi (AFO, Makawanpur ), Mr. Mahendra Joshi (AFO, Makawanpur ) , Mr. Rishi Raj (Ranger , Makawanpur), Mr. Basant Prasad Gautam ( AFO, Makawanpur ) and Mr. Bhim Sen Karki ( Senior Forest Guard , District Forest Office , Makawanpur ) for their contribution in facilitating the study . I would like to thank Mr. Ram Bichari Thakur ( R.B. Thakur ) for the overall field inventory , analysis of the data and preparation of this report . Despite the limited budget, time and literature availability, his contribution is highly acknowledged. Last but not least, I would like to express my sincere thanks to all individuals and institutions including community forest user groups who have contributed in the preparation of this important document. Raj Dev Prasad Yadav District Forest Officer District Forest Office, Makawanpur Asar-19, 2066 2  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First and foremost my sincere gratitude and deep respect goes to Mr. Raj Dev Prasad Yadav, District Forest Officer, Makawanpur for his continuous guidance, suggestions, encouragement and help extended to complete this study. I would like to express my sincere and profound gratitude to Mr. Nabin Giri (AFO, Makawanpur ) , Mr. Achyut Upadhyay (Ranger, District Forest Office , Makawanpur), Mr. Thir Bahadur Karki (AFO, Makawanpur ) and Mr. Durga Bahadur Karki (AFO, Makawanpur ) who encouraged and motivated me to boost up my study with some critiques and suggestions. I express my deep sense of gratitude and respect to Mr. Jawahar Kurmi (AFO, Makawanpur ), Mr. Mahendra Joshi (AFO, Makawanpur ) , Mr. Rishi Raj (Ranger , Makawanpur), Mr. Basant Prasad Gautam ( AFO, Makawanpur ) and Mr. Bhim Sen Karki ( Senior Forest Guard , District Forest Office , Makawanpur ) since without their contribution in assessing orchid resource & carrying out social survey was very much difficult and this report will not be possible in this form. I would like to express my sincere thanks to respected members of the Dovan CFUG, Bajrabarahi VDC-6; Bhalayabhid CFUG, Markhu VDC- 4; Chhaharepakha CFUG, Markhu VDC-9 ; Lundup Chhuling CFUG, Kulekhani VDC-1; Karnabhumi CFUG, Daman VDC-6,7.8 ; Kalibanjar CFUG, DamanVDC-1; Ghale ko Pakha CFUG, Agara VDC-5 ; Gorakshanath CFUG, Harnamadi VDC ; Channouta CFUG, Basamadi VDC-1; Churiya Mai Bandevi CFUG, Churiya Mai VDC-4 ; Sundari CFUG, Bhaise VDC-7 and Aphnai CFUG, Bhaise VDC-4 , Chuniya assistance during fieldwork as well as for the invaluable comments, suggestions and feedback during the study . From: Mr. Ram Bichari Thakur ( R.B. Thakur) Biodiversity & Climate Change Analyst Permanent Address : District Sarlahi, VDC Pipariya – 6 , Nepal e-mail : rbthakur@gmail.com, Mobile : 9841555567 3  Enumerating the Status & Management Plan of Orchid Species of Makawanpur District  Abstract The heartland of the Himalayas, Nepal, harbors more than 385 species of orchids. The mild climatic condition favors for the florish of orchids. Monsoon rainfall from June to last of September brings around 80% of annual rainfall. The rain invades Nepal from eastern part and and gradually decreases towards west. So, the eastern half of Nepal receives much more rain than the western half and this is positively reflected in the orchid flora. Makawanpur district possesses tropical to upper temperate ecological region which consist following major forest types: Sal, Chir Pine mixed broadleaved, Oak - Rhododendron and Upper temperate conifer forest type. Study sites were selected representing different ecological regions of community forests. Total no. of study sample plots were 165 and sample area were 15,290 sq. m. Stratified systematic sampling technique was used for the study. Total forest area of Makawanpur district is 244668 ha. Out of them, Sal forest, Chir pine broadleaved mixed forest, Oak - Rhododendron forest and Temperate Conifer Broadleaved mixed forest are 66 %, 29 %, 2 % and 3 % respectively. Sal forest is predominant in the district. No. of bunches / clumps per hectare in Sal forest type, Chir pine broadleaved mixed forest , Oak- Rhododendron forest and Temperate Conifer Broadleaved Mixed forest are 1623, 253 , 964 and 200 respectively. Out of them, Sal forest has the highest no. of bunches / clumps per ha. Total permissible annual yield of orchid species from Makawanpur district is 183.13 metric tons. Out of them, 172.9 metric tons can be collected from Sal forest , 7.27 metric tons from Chir pine broadleaved mixed forest , 2.57 metric tons from Oak - Rhododendron forest and 1 metric ton from temperate conifer broadleaved mixed forest . There are thirty species of orchid found in Sal forest type . Out of them, Bulbophyllum guttulatum  , Cymbidium aloifolium , Eria amica  , Otochilus fuscus  and Panisea demissa  have more then 100 no. of clumps / bunches per hectare in sal forest . There are twenty one species of orchid found in Oak-Rhododendron forest type. Out of them, Bulbpphyllum cariniflorum  and Micropera obtusa  have more then 100 no. of clumps / bunches per hectare in the forest. There are nineteen species of orchid found in Chir Pine - Broadleaved Mixed Forest. No species have more then 100 no. of clumps / bunches per hectare in the forest. There are fifteen species of orchid found in Temperate Conifer Broadleaved Mixed Forest. No species have more then 100 no. of clumps / bunches per hectare in the forest. Bulbophyllum secundum, Calanthe plantaginea , Coelogyne cristata , Coelogyne flaccida , Coelogyne stricta , Cryptochilus sanguinea , Epigeneium amplum   , Pleione praecox, Pholidota articulata and Pholidota pallida are terrestrial orchid species found in Makawanpur district . Coelogyne cristata , Coelogyne flaccida , Dendrobium densiflorum , Dendrobium longicornu , Pleione praecox , Rhynchostylis retusa and Vanda cristata have ethno-botanical uses of different ethnic communities of Makawanpur district . Orchid species should be conserved through proper harvesting of trees , controlled the forest stand from uncontrolled fire and make awareness to the members of community forest users group , forestry professionals and all stakeholders . 4   TABLE OF CONTENTS Cover Page ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………i Foreword………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………ii Acknowledgement……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..iii Table of contents ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….iv Chapter I Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1 Rationale of the study…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………2 Objective of the study…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………3 Chapter II Methodology of the Study……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………4 Site Selection ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………4 Data Collection………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…4 Primary Data Collection………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………4 Secondary Data Collection…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……4 Data Analysis…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…4 Presentation of the Findings ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………4 Orchid Resource Assessment Technique ……………………………………………………………………………………………...……5 Chapter III Major Findings of the Orchid Inventory of Makawanpur District ………………………………………………………………6 Forest Area According to Forest Types ………………………………………………………………………………………………………6 Population Density Per Hectare of Bunches / Clumps of Orchids in Major Forest Types …………………………6 Permissible Yield ( in Metric tons ) of Orchid Species According to Forest Types ……………………………………7 Orchid Species Found in Major Forest Types ………………………………………………………………………………………………7 Orchid Species Found in Sal Forest Types ……………………………………………………………………………….…………………8 Orchid Species Found in Oak-Rhododendron Forest Type ………………………………………………………………….…….9 Orchid Species Found in Chir Pine Broadleaved Mixed Forest Type ………………………………………………………10 Orchid Species Found in Temperate Conifer Broadleaved Mixed Forest Type ……………………………….………11 Terrestrial Orchid Species …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………12 Ethnobotanical Uses of Orchids ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………12 5
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