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Effect of outdoor access and increased amounts of local feed materials in the diets of hens covered by the gene-pool protection programme for farm animals in Poland on quality of eggs during peak egg production

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The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that eggs from native breed laying hens fed a diet containing increased amounts of local feed materials are not inferior in quality to eggs from laying hens receiving a standard diet but raised
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   Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 13, No. 2 (2013) 327–339, DOI: 10.2478/aoas-2013-0013 EFFECT OF OUTDOOR ACCESS AND INCREASED AMOUNTS OF LOCAL FEED MATERIALS IN THE DIETS OF HENS COVERED BY THE GENE-POOL PROTECTION PROGRAMME FOR FARM ANIMALS IN POLAND ON QUALITY OF EGGS DURING PEAK EGG PRODUCTION* * Józefa Krawczyk  1♦ , Zofia Sokoowicz 2 , Slwester Świtkiewicz 3 , Ewa Sosin-Bzducha 11 Department of Animal Genetic Resources Conservation,  National Research Institute of Animal Production, 32-083 Balice n. Kraków, Poland 2 Department of Animal Production and Poultry Products Evaluation, University of Rzeszów, M. Ćwiklińskiej 2, 35-601 Rzeszów, Poland 3 Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science,  National Research Institute of Animal Production, 32-083 Balice n. Kraków, Poland ♦ Corresponding author: jozefa.krawczk@izoo.krakow.pl AbstractThe objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that eggs from native breed laying hens fed a diet containing increased amounts of local feed materials are not inferior in quality to eggs from laying hens receiving a standard diet but raised without outdoor access. The study involved Green-leg Partridge (Z-11) and Rhode Island Red hens (R-11). Within each breed, the control group (C) consisted of 60 hens kept on litter without outdoor access, stocked at 5 birds/m 2  and fed a diet con-taining 65.3% of local feed materials. The experimental group (E) contained 60 layers maintained on litter with access to an outdoor area (11 m 2  per bird) and fed a diet containing 77.1% of local feed materials. Eggs from hens of both breeds, which received diets containing increased propor-tions of local feed materials had lower weight but higher yolk percentage. The quality of eggshells from hens fed the diet with increased amounts of local materials was similar to that of eggshells from conned hens. Egg yolk lipids from experimental groups were characterized by a more ben - ecial n-6/n-3  acid ratio and elevated vitamin A levels. These eggs had better sensory scores for colour, avour and aroma, which suggests that it is appropriate to raise native breeds of chickens with outdoor access and local feed materials can be used in extensive husbandry systems.Key words: protected breeds/lines, egg quality, outdoor system, nutrition * Supported b grant No. N R12 0083 10 nanced b the National Centre for Research and Deve-  lopment. Unauthenticated | 89 66 137 210Download Date | 2/7/14 9:01 PM   J. Krawczyk et al. 328Recent years have seen a growing interest in eggs from extensive husbandry.  Native and local breeds are recommended for extensive husbandry systems because high-producing layer hybrids, which were developed as a result of long-term breed-ing work for the needs of intensive production under controlled environment con-ditions, are not suitable for raising under harsh free-range conditions. In Poland, native breeds have been raised in single ocks of about 1000 birds, on litter without outdoor access. In line with the European Union policy for sustainable development in agriculture, efforts are being made to reintroduce them into extensive free-range systems, in their natural environments. Although native breeds, such as Greenleg Partridge (Z-11) and Rhode Island Red hens (R-11) are characterized by lower egg  production, they are less demanding in terms of the environmental conditions and are willing to use outdoor runs (Sarter, 2004; Krawczyk et al., 2011).It appears that when promoting activities aimed at sustainable development of rural areas, it is necessary not only to promote the extensive husbandry methods and the use of native breed hens, but also to consider the possible use of local raw materi-als for feeds. With relatively low prices for local grains, rapeseed expeller cake and dried distillers grains with solubles, egg production in the extensive farming system could be a means of using local feed materials, putting the local grain surplus to use, and limiting the amounts of imported sobean or sunower meal in feed mixtures. To meet the expectations of consumers, research should be undertaken to determine the effect of increased amounts of local feed materials in feeding native breed laying hens and the free-range system on egg quality. The objective of the stud was to test the hpothesis that eggs from Greenleg Partridge (Z-11) and Rhode Island Red hens (R-11) native breed laying hens fed a diet containing increased amounts of local feed materials are not inferior in quality to eggs from laying hens receiving a standard diet but raised without outdoor access. Material and methods The study involved Greenleg Partridge (Z-11) and Rhode Island Red hens (R-11). Until 18 weeks of age, hens of both breeds were kept on litter under standard envi- ronmental conditions and fed a standard rearing diet for hens. At 18 weeks, 60 hens of each breed were assigned to the control group (C) and 60 hens to the experimental group (E). The control group was kept on litter without outdoor access, stocked at 5 birds/m 2  and fed a standard layer diet. Within each breed, the experimental group (E) consisted of layers maintained on litter with access to an outdoor area (11 m 2  per  bird) and fed a diet containing increased amounts of local feed materials (Table 1). The diet for hens from experimental groups contained 77.1% of local feed materials (ground wheat and maize, DDGS, rapeseed meal and rapeseed oil), while the diet for control laers contained onl 65.27% of local feed materials (ground wheat and maize). Unlike the diet for layers from the experimental group, the diet fed to control hens of both breeds was supplemented with feed pigments to improve yolk colour intensity (Table 1). The basic chemical composition of the diets and the total protein content of egg white were analysed based on AOAC procedures (1997). Unauthenticated | 89 66 137 210Download Date | 2/7/14 9:01 PM   Local feed materials in hen diets and egg quality 329 Table 1. Composition, nutritional value and major fatt acids of diets Item Diet/Group control (C)experimental (E) Content (%) WheatMaize 50.2715.00 43.1021.00DDGS Sunower meal -12.007.00-Soybean meal (47% CP)9.2012.00Rapeseed cake- 5.00 Rapeseed oilSoybean oilWheat gluten-1.002.071.00--Limestone9.008.80Dicalcium phosphate0.701.10 NaCl0.220.3DL-Met (99%)0.020.09 L-Ls (65%) 0.010.11Vitamin-mineral premix 1 Feed pigment 0.50 0.1 0.50 - Chemical composition Metabolizable energ (MJ/kg) 10.911.3Crude protein (g) 167.8160.0 Lys (g)7.207.30Met (g)3.203.30Ca (g)37.0 36.1 Total P (g) 5.293.50Vitamin A IU/kg8775 709.1 Vitamin E (mg/kg)35 13.9 Fatty acids (g/100 g) C12:00.02 0.06C16:014.6913.16C16:1 0.180.19C18:0 2.552.16 C18:124.4934.24C18:2, n-6  50.38 43.82C18:3, n-3 4.855.25 C20:00.730.38C22:1other 0.381.720.19 0.65 SFA17.99 15.76 UFA80.29 83.59 MUFA 25.0534.61 PUFA, n-6  50.3843.85 PUFA,  n-3 5.025.29 n-6/n-3 10.048.29 1 The premix provided, per 1 kg of diet: vitamin A – 8.000 IU; vitamin D 3  – 3.000 IU; vitamin E – 40 IU; vitamin K  3  – 2 mg; vitamin B 1  – 1 mg; vitamin B 2  – 4 mg; vitamin B 6  – 1.5 mg; vitamin B 12  – 0.01 mg; Ca- -pantothenate – 8 mg; niacin – 25 mg; folic acid – 0.5 mg; choline chloride – 250 mg; manganese – 90 mg; zinc – 90 mg; iron – 50 mg; copper – 12 mg; iodine – 1.2 mg; selenium – 0.2 mg. Unauthenticated | 89 66 137 210Download Date | 2/7/14 9:01 PM   J. Krawczyk et al. 330During the entire egg production period, both control and experimental hens re- ceived a photoperiod of 16L:8D. During the period preceding the collection of eggs for analsis, the mean air temperature was 16±2ºC indoors and ranged from 22±5ºC (August) to 11±6ºC (November) in the outdoor area.Tests were conducted with 184 eggs (46 eggs from each group) collected from layers during peak egg production (33 weeks of age, third week of November). Thir-ty eggs from each group were evaluated for physical characteristics of egg shells and interior egg. Shell strength was determined using a texture analyser (Stable Micro Systems Ltd., England). Egg quality traits, i.e. egg weight, shell colour, density and thickness, yolk weight, albumen height, Haugh units and Roche yolk colour were measured with EQM system (TSS Ltd., England). The content of higher fatty acids in feeds and egg yolks (8 eggs from each group – 2 eggs per sample) was analysed with gas chromatography by determining the acids as methyl esters. Samples were prepared according to the procedure of the Cen-tral Laboratory of the National Research Institute of Animal Production, based on a method described b Folch et al. (1957) involving homogenization of the sample in a mixture of chloroform and methanol (2/1) and solvent evaporation, followed  b saponication (0.5 N NaOH in methanol) and esterication (BF 3  in methanol) of the evaporation residue. The fatty acid methyl esters obtained were determined in hexane extracts b gas chromatograph (VARIAN 3400) using a column lled with acid-modied polethlene glcol (e.g. ZEBRON ZB-WAX 30m), an 8200 CX autosampler and data processing software.Analyses of egg yolk (8 eggs from each group – 2 eggs per sample) for vitamin A and E content were performed according to an accredited procedure based on standards PN-EN ISO 14565 (all-trans-retinol, vitamin A) and PN-EN ISO 6867 (α-tocopherol, vitamin E).Boiled eggs were subjected to sensor analsis (olk colour, aroma and avour). Each trait was assessed on a scale of 1 (lowest) to 5 (highest).The results were subjected to two-wa analsis of variance with Duncan’s mul - tiple range test using Statgraphics 5.0 Plus. Results The study showed no effect of outdoor access and increased amounts of local feed materials on eggshell shape or colour (P>0.05) (Table 2). Chickens of both breeds raised with outdoor access laid eggs with 0.30 g lower shell weight (P<0.01). Shell density, thickness and strength were similar for experi- mental and control groups of both breeds (P>0.05) (Table 2). In the present study, chickens of both breeds that had access to free range pro-duced lighter eggs (P<0.01) (Table 3). The decrease in egg weight under free-range system (E) was not paralleled by a decrease in yolk weight, which caused free-range eggs to have higher yolk and lower albumen percentage (P<0.01). Unauthenticated | 89 66 137 210Download Date | 2/7/14 9:01 PM   Local feed materials in hen diets and egg quality 331Eggs from the experimental groups of both breeds were characterized by lower albumen height (P<0.01) and lower Haugh units (P<0.05) (Table 3). Table 2. Effect of hen breed and diet on egg shape index and shell qualityGroupShapeindex(%)Shellcolour (%)weight (g)density (mg/cm 2 ) thickness (μm) strength(N) Breed/group R-11 C 75.944.65.7778.6 343 51.2 R-11 E 76.7 44.9 5.3975.9 339 48.5 Z-11 C 76.461.25.3276.9 343 50.3 Z-11 E74.8 60.75.0976.4 33447.1BreedZ-11 75.660.95.2176.7 33948.7R-11 76.3 44.8 5.58 77.234149.8DietC 76.252.95.54 77.7343 50.8 E 75.852.85.2476.2 33747.8BreedNS****NSNSNSDietNSNS**NSNSNSB×D*NSNSNSNSNSSEM (N = 120) 2.66 9.11 0.558 7.9030.010.7  NS – not signicant; * – P≤0.05; ** – P≤0.01. Yolk colour intensity was smaller for eggs from Z-11 and R-11 hens receiving the diet without feed pigments and with outdoor access compared to eggs from hens fed the standard layer diet supplemented with pigments (P<0.01). The yolk of eggs from the control and experimental groups in each breed had similar levels of vitamin A (P>0.05). The olks of eggs from experimental laers of  both breeds had a signicantl lower content of vitamin E (P<0.01). The percentage of different fatty acids in yolk lipids of eggs from Z-11 and R-11 hens kept with (E) and without outdoor access (C) is given in Table 4. The present stud showed that the diets had an effect on the fatt acid prole. Changes in the content of different fatty acids were observed for SFA, UFA, MUFA, both PUFA series and the n-6/n-3  ratio. Feeding layers a diet with an increased proportion of local materials while allowing outdoor access contributed to a decrease in total poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in yolk fat, including n-6   acids, and to an increase in the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and n-3  acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6) in olk fat (P≤0.01). The analsed olks were found to contain trace amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5). In the sensor evaluation of boiled eggs (Table 5), more points for olk colour intensit, odour and avour were given to eggs from experimental laers (P<0.01). Unauthenticated | 89 66 137 210Download Date | 2/7/14 9:01 PM
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