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PRINCIPLES OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD: A RESEARCH-BASED GUIDE This publication is available for your use and may be reproduced in its entirety without permission from NIDA. Citation of the source is appreciated, using the following language: Source: National Institute on Drug Abuse; National Institutes of Health; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The U.S. government d
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       PRINCIPLES OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD:  A RESEARCH-BASED GUIDE This publication is available for your use and may be reproduced in its entirety  without permission from NIDA. Citation of the source is appreciated, using the following language: Source: National Institute on Drug Abuse; National Institutes of Health; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The U.S. government does not endorse or favor any specific commercial product or company. Trade, proprietary, or company names appearing in the publication are used only because they are considered essential in the context of the studies described here. March 2016    Table of Contents Acknowledgements .......................................................................................................................................................................... 1   Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3   Principles of Substance Abuse Prevention for Early Childhood ..................................................................................... 7   Principle 1 (Overarching Principle): Intervening early in childhood can alter the life course trajectory in a positive direction ....................................................................................................................................................................... 7   Principle 2: Intervening early in childhood can both increase protective factors and reduce risk factors7   Principle 3: Intervening early in childhood can have positive long-term effects ................................................ 7   Principle 4: Intervening in early childhood can have effects on a wide array of behaviors ............................ 7   Principle 5: Early childhood interventions can positively affect children’s biological functioning ............. 8   Principle 6: Early childhood prevention interventions should target the proximal environments of the child .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8   Principle 7: Positively affecting a child’s behavior through early intervention can elicit positive behaviors in adult caregivers and in other children, improving the overall social environment ................. 8   Chapter 1: Why is Early Childhood Important to Substance Abuse Prevention? ................................................... 11   What does the life course perspective show about risk for drug abuse and how to prevent it? ................. 12   What are the major influences on a child’s early development? .............................................................................. 14   Chapter 2: Risk and Protective Factors .................................................................................................................................. 21   What are some important early childhood risk factors for later drug use? ......................................................... 21   What if a child has multiple risk factors?........................................................................................................................... 26   What are some important protective factors that can offset risk factors? ........................................................... 28   Chapter 3: Intervening in Early Childhood ........................................................................................................................... 33   What contexts do early childhood interventions target? ............................................................................................ 37   Do early childhood interventions target all children or just those at highest risk? .......................................... 38   What are some characteristic features of early childhood interventions? ........................................................... 39   How does changing the behavior of parents and teachers help children? ........................................................... 42   Who benefits the most from early childhood interventions? .................................................................................... 42   Chapter 4: Research-Based Early Intervention Substance Abuse Prevention Programs ................................... 47   Prenatal/Infancy and Toddlerhood (Ages 0 to 3 Years).............................................................................................. 49   Universal Programs ............................................................................................................................................................... 49   Durham Connects. .............................................................................................................................................................. 49   Selective Programs ................................................................................................................................................................. 49   Early Steps, Family Check-Up (Early Steps FCU). .................................................................................................. 49   Family Spirit. ........................................................................................................................................................................ 50   Nurse Family Partnership. .............................................................................................................................................. 51     Preschool (Ages 3 to 6 Years) ................................................................................................................................................ 52   Selective Programs ................................................................................................................................................................. 52   Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers (MTFC-P) ......................................................... 52   Transition to School (Ages 6 to 8 Years) ............................................................................................................................ 53   Universal Programs ............................................................................................................................................................... 53   Caring School Community Program ............................................................................................................................ 53   Classroom-Centered (CC) Intervention. .................................................................................................................... 54   Linking the Interests of Families and Teachers (LIFT). ...................................................................................... 55   Raising Healthy Children (RHC). .................................................................................................................................. 56   SAFEChildren. ...................................................................................................................................................................... 57   Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP). ............................................................................................................ 58   Selective Programs ................................................................................................................................................................. 59   Early Risers “Skills for Success” Risk Prevention Program. .............................................................................. 59   Kids in Transition to School (KITS). ............................................................................................................................ 60   Tiered Programs ..................................................................................................................................................................... 60   Fast Track Prevention Trial for Conduct Problems. ............................................................................................. 60   Incredible Years   Parents, Teachers, and Children’s Training Series. ......................................................... 62   Positive Action (PA). ......................................................................................................................................................... 63   School and Homes in Partnership (SHIP). ................................................................................................................ 64   Chapter 5: Selected Resources ................................................................................................................................................... 69   Appendix 1: From Theory to Outcomes—Designing Evidence-Based Interventions .......................................... 79   Intervention Timing, Context, and Components ............................................................................................................. 80   Program Evaluation and Assessment of Benefit-Cost .................................................................................................. 81   Appendix 2: Selecting and Implementing an Intervention ............................................................................................. 85   Determining Community Risk and Protective Factors ................................................................................................. 85   Identifying the Target Population ........................................................................................................................................ 88   Adapting Programs .................................................................................................................................................................... 89   Collecting Data ............................................................................................................................................................................. 89  
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