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  International Journal of Research in Management, Science & Technology (E-ISSN: 2321-3264) Vol. 4, No. 1, April 2016 Available at   2321-3264/Copyright©2016, IJRMST, April 2016 100   An Experiment Applying the Enterprise Architecture ‘ Case Study: Algerian Government Agency ’   Mâache Salah Computer Science Department, University ElBachir ElIbrahimi  Bordj BouArreridj, Algeria  Abstract  -- Companies are always looking for ways to solve the equation do more and better with less. The current difficulties encountered in companies such as: - Environment increasingly competitive; - Complexity produced because of the lack of model that describes the company’s operations or the existing enterprise models not followed; - Lack of consistency between the Information Technology IT solutions; - Successive generation IT solutions; - lack of alignment between business strategy and IT strategy; - difficult to anticipate IT solutions; - Lack of agility due to lack of target models for the enterprise transformation. All these issues and others appear in Algerian firms more than firms in developed countries, that's why this area has drawn our attention and forced us to look for solutions and propose case studies based on the only solution currently exists for deal with such complex issues is the Enterprise Architecture EA. These case studies aim to: - show the EA promise to enterprises; clarify and simplify the application of EA techniques to enterprises; enrich the field cases EA studies who suffers from a major lack in this level. So in this paper, we present an enterprise architecture building case study for an Algerian public organization using the framework TOGAF and the modeling language and notation ArchiMate. Before starting the description of this work we will do a fly over on the theoretical aspects, definitions, frameworks, languages and tools used in this study. Keywords --   Enterprise Architecture EA, Information Technology, Enterprise Management, TOGAF, Archimate. 1.   INTRODUCTION The architecture of business is the rigorous description of all structures, behavior and information within a company, it affects the areas business, information, application and technology. Its main objective to align business strategy with IT strategy. To build a successful enterprise architecture, efficient and applicable, it will follow a well-defined approach based on best practices framework, TOGAF is the most used, which proposes a method and also a full content of architecture. TOGAF does not impose specific notations for that we need a modeling language and notation, the most adapted to the TOGAF is ArchiMate. So in this work we will detail our contribution that is a case study based on TOGAF and ArchiMate for build an enterprise architecture of an Algerian public organization CNR National retirement fund , before beginning this study we will fly over the definitions and theoretical approaches which rotates around TOGAF and ArchiMate. 2.   ARCHITECTURE ENTREPRISE In this section we will try to explain what's enterprise architecture, the layers of EA, will finally see the TOGAF framework and the modeling language and notation used in this work. 2.1   Definitions The EA field is a new field, for that we find several definitions proposed by researchers in the field [2], we may mention in particular the following: 1.   the set of primitive, descriptive artifacts that constitute the knowledge infrastructure of the Enterprise [13]; 2.   An EA represents a structured body of knowledge for engineering and integration of the enterprise, which include knowledge of analysis and detailed description, the design and development of project engineering and the operation of enterprise [9]; 3.   the fundamental organization of a system included in its components, their relationships to each other and the environment, and the principles governing its design and evolution[3][7] ; 4.   This is the logic for structuring business processes and IT infrastructure reflecting the integration and standardization requirements of the operating model of the enterprise [5]; 5.   According to TOGAF / The Open Group Architecture Framework  [11] a definition of Enterprise Architecture is addressed in 2 constituent parts  –   enterprise and architecture. TOGAF defines ‘‘enterprise’’ as any collection of organizations that has a common set of goals. For example, an enterprise could be a government agency, a whole corporation, a division of a corporation, a single department, or a chain of geographically distant organizations linked together by common ownership. In TOGAF, ‘‘architecture’’ has two meanings depending upon the context:    A formal description of a system, or a detailed  plan of the system at component level to guide its implementation;    The structure of components, their inter-relationships, and the principles and guidelines governing their design and evolution over time  International Journal of Research in Management, Science & Technology (E-ISSN: 2321-3264) Vol. 4, No. 1, April 2016 Available at   2321-3264/Copyright©2016, IJRMST, April 2016 101   2.2   Application Domain Generally, we can apply enterprise architecture in any organizational system capitalist or not, or in sectors of the economy or in the structures of the administration and government, including: -   Government agency, public or private sector organizations; -   A whole company or society; -   Public institutions, universities, research centers, associations; -   A part of a large company (such as a business unit); -   A conglomerate of several organizations, including a  joint venture or partnership; -   An outsourced business operation multiplies; 2.3   EA Layers The enterprise architecture layers are fields or practice areas to properly describe the enterprise according to well determined specifications. The number of layers and their definitions differ according to the definition of EA, the framework, the EA construction methods, tools and modeling languages. For example, the framework TOGAF divided EA into three  practice areas [11]: Business Architecture; Information Systems Architecture (divided in two information and application); and Technology Architecture. According to Hewlett [5] the four most popular common areas and components shown in Figure 1, we give below a small description so in each layer: Figure 1 The four layers of AE[5]   2.3.1    Business layer: Describes in this layer in general: -   Strategy maps, goals, company policies, operating model; -   Functional decompositions (eg IDEF0, SADT) capabilities Trades and organizational models; -   Business processes, workflow and rules that articulate the assigned authorities, responsibilities and policies; -   Organization of cycles, periods and schedule; -   Equipment suppliers, software and services. 2.3.2    Data layer: This field affects the part of the information and data that is collected, organized, stored and distributed. Some points can be cited for the content of this layer: -   Information architecture is a global view of the flow of information in an enterprise; -   Data architecture that describes the flow of data and how the data will be processed, stored; -   Master Data Management; -   Business Intelligence Analytics & Reporting BI this includes Reporting Data Stores, Operational Data Store (ODS), DataMart and Data Warehouse; -   Data quality to identify, analyze, improve and measure the quality of data, integrity issues and data improvement efforts; -   Data models abstraction of physical or logical database; -   The data lifecycle management is how to create, organize, update, use, distribute, and archive, obsolete data and information. 2.3.3    Applications layer: In this layer, a rigorous description can be done of software applications, for example: -   An inventory of applications and software diagrams; -   The interfaces between applications that are: events, messages. 2.3.4   Technology layer: Some sub-field to be treated by the technology architecture, we can mention here: -   Middleware; -   The runtime applications and Framework; -   Application server and operating systems, authentication and authorization environments, security systems and operating and monitoring systems, hardware platforms and hosting servers; -   Computer centers and labs, LAN and WAN networks, Internet connectivity diagrams, intranet, extranet, Internet, electronic commerce; -   DBMS, programming languages. 2.4   Architecture frameworks The interest of using architecture frameworks are many we quote here some of them: -   Provide methods and content to design the architecture; -   Reduce architectural construction costs; -   Ensure portability of architectural models; -   Maintain, flexibility and evolution of models; -   Encourage the reuse of architectural components. As for frameworks exist we can say that the Zachman framework [14] is considered the first framework architecture, which are derived the other frameworks such as DoDAF (Department of Defense Architecture  International Journal of Research in Management, Science & Technology (E-ISSN: 2321-3264) Vol. 4, No. 1, April 2016 Available at   2321-3264/Copyright©2016, IJRMST, April 2016 102   Framework) of the Department of Defense who was created to define the military functions of the department of defense, and MODAF (modaf). Another framework widely used is TOGAF. 2.5   Tools and languages Architectural languages are modeling tools and set of concepts and notations that support the Framework and help enterprise architects to create, visualize, analyze and model the enterprise architecture. Among the enterprise architecture development solutions existed the following is cited: the pair ArchiMate [1]  based on TOGAF [11]. This solution is used in this work we will discuss them in detail in the next sections. 2.6   TOGAF The Open Group Architecture Framework is a framework - a detailed method and a set of supporting tools - for developing an enterprise architecture. It may be used freely  by any organization wishing to develop an enterprise architecture for use within that organization [11]. TOGAF is developed and maintained by members of The Open Group, working within the Architecture Forum (refer to The srcinal development of TOGAF Version 1 in 1995 was  based on the Technical Architecture Framework for Information Management (TAFIM), developed by the US Department of Defense (DoD). The DoD gave The Open Group explicit permission and encouragement to create TOGAF by building on the TAFIM, which itself was the result of many years of development effort and many millions of dollars of US Government investment. TOGAF has been proposed to allow users to implement open solutions to lower costs, simplify processes associated with designing, planning, acquisition and integration of open systems, and help CIOs (Chief information officer) to  better communicate their goals and strategies for decision makers [2]. Moreover, TOGAF has been proposed in order to improve performance of IT developments within an enterprise [8].  2.6.1   The parts of TOGAF The Figure 1  represents the content of TOGAF which is divided into seven parts. Figure 2 The main parts of TOGAF[3]   2.6.2    Architecture Development Method The core of TOGAF is the wheel ADM (Architecture Development Method), the represents and exposes the structure of the method with the phases and transitions of ADM. 2.7   ArchiMate TOGAF does not impose specific modeling language [2]. ArchiMate is a standard of Open Group, an open and independent modeling language for enterprise architecture which is supported by different tool providers and consulting firms. ArchiMate provides instruments to enable enterprise architects to describe, analyze and visualize the relationships between the business areas in an unambiguous way[1].   Figure 3 Architecture Development Method [11] Structure of language and correspondence with TOGAF: The ArchiMate language is structured in layers and aspects   Figure 4 ArchiMate structure and correspondence with TOGAF [1]  International Journal of Research in Management, Science & Technology (E-ISSN: 2321-3264) Vol. 4, No. 1, April 2016 Available at   2321-3264/Copyright©2016, IJRMST, April 2016 103   Figure 4 shows the general structure of the ArchiMate language with correspondence with the TOGAF ADM wheel, the reason of this correspondence is to simplify the use of the concepts of ArchiMate according to TOGAF approach 2.7.1   Concepts and notations of ArchiMate ArchiMate defines concepts for each architecture layer and gives their corresponding notations. For the business layer defines sixteen concepts, to the application layer gives us seven and nine concepts for technology layer, all these concepts are classified according to three aspects: structure,  behavior, and information. Figure 5 notation concepts extract of ArchiMateshows a part of notations concepts of the three layers.   Figure 5 notation concepts extract of ArchiMate   2.7.2   The notion of architectural viewpoints We saw earlier the classification of concepts in their layer and aspect, until present we cannot build a clear enterprise architecture, coherent and well-organized that addresses the  point of view of the recipients of architectural models, in this approach, the ArchiMate proposes to build the architecture models according viewpoints.   ArchiMate defines three important notions to create reliable architecture models: the stakeholder; view; the point of view. Views are an ideal mechanism to purposefully convey information about architecture areas. In general, a view is defined as a part of an architecture description that addresses a set of related concerns and is addressed to a set of stakeholders. A view is specified by means of a viewpoint, which prescribes the concepts, models, analysis techniques, and visualizations that are provided by the view. Simply put, a view is what you see and a viewpoint is where you are looking from [1].   Figure 6 Classification of Enterprise Architecture viewpoints [1]   ArchiMate defines the classification of viewpoints and views according to two dimensions: purpose and content. The goal of this classification is to assist architects and others find suitable viewpoints given their task at hand. The three types of architecture support the purpose dimension of architecture views are: Designing, Deciding, and Informing. For characterizing the content of a view we define the following abstraction levels: Details, Coherence, Overview. The Figure 6 displays the dimensions of purpose and abstraction level, together with examples of typical stakeholders that are addressed by these viewpoints. ArchiMate offers three categories of viewpoint: -   Motivation viewpoints contain six viewpoints; -   Architectural viewpoints contain eighteen viewpoints;The implementation and migration viewpoints contains three viewpoints; ArchiMate helps architectural designers by meta-models that contain the concepts necessary for every point of view, Figure 7 shows a meta-model with concepts and relationships to
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