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Design and Implementation of an Automatic Solar Panel Based Led Street Lighting System Using Zigbee and Sensors

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  Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 23 (4): 573-579, 2015ISSN 1990-9233© IDOSI Publications, 2015DOI: 10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2015.23.04.22140 Corresponding Author: R. Santhosh Kumar, Department of CSE, Adhiyamaan College of Engineering, Hosur-635109 Tamil Nadu, India. 573 Design and Implementation of an Automatic Solar Panel BasedLed Street Lighting System Using Zigbee and Sensors  R. Santhosh Kumar, Dr. Prabu, S. Vijaya Rani and P. Venkatesh Department of CSE, Adhiyamaan College of Engineering, Hosur-635109 Tamil Nadu, India Abstract: Electricity has become are indispensable component in the lives of all today. Street lights are one of the most crucial parts for public sector and urban areas. The traditional street lighting System which controlledmanually has disadvantages like high power consumption, high cost and there is no effective monitoringsystem. This paper is proposes an Automatic Solar Panel Based LED Street Lighting System with wirelesscommunication technology and various sensors to facilitate reduced power consumption. The system isconnected to ZIGBEE network to transfer the information about street lights by utilizing ZIGBEE transmittersand receivers. The data is sent to base station control to know the status of the street light and to take proper evaluation in case of malfunction. The proposed prototype has been tested in different environmentalconditions. The system has achieved 20-22 % of power reduction and economy in maintenance costs.Alaboratoryprototype was implemented and tested. Experimental results were shown to verify the feasibility of the proposed scheme. Key words: Automation LED Sensors Zig Bee Solar Energy INTRODUCTION friendliness, energy efficiency and about a 50% saving inStreetlighting systems are a typical case oftechnology like compact fluorescent, incandescent,distributedlow-voltage loads located in areas andsodium vapour lamp etc. A Third is the Remote-controlcollecting protected by the same device. Currently,system which involves, as the nomenclature suggests,reduction of electrical power consumption has been anRemote Control and monitoring which simplify problemsextremely noticeable issue in India, Where the wastage ofof management and maintenance problem [4-6]. power occurs highly in street lighting zone. A Street lightThescope of this paper is to integrate the aboveis animportant source of light on the edges of the roadthree possibilities to develop an automatic solar panelandit plays a vital role for providing society security,based LED Street Lighting system. The system isensuring quality of life and avoiding crimes as well ascontrolled remotely using ZIGBEE network which isaccidents during night time. Street light systems werepowered by renewable energy and LED based lightmanuallycontrolled, later via time control and opticalsource.Many researchers have put in considerable effortscontrol manner. These methods are very costly and notedin street lighting matter in the areas of reduction of power for difficulty in monitoring. They involve high Powerconsumption, maintenance cost and for ensuring costConsumption.The universal observation is that abouteffective lighting system. Caponetto et al   have focused20%of power consumption occurs through street lightingon the different remote control based street lightingsystemdue their designs as per old standards which dosystem. In this system information of the street lights isnot incorporate the latest technology features [1- 3].transferred periodically to the base station control toThereare three possible solutions for the problemsolve management and maintenance issues [1]. This typementionedabove. First possibility is use Renewableof system has been developed through GPRS (Generalenergy source in the place of conventional power source.Packet Radio Services), power line carrier and GSMThe Second is utilization of the latest LED Lighting(global system for mobile communication). Liu et al havetechnology which offers many benefits like, environmentdeveloped a street lighting system by utilizing latest lightPower consumption, compared to other lighting   Middle-East J. Sci. Res., 23 (4): 573-579, 2015 574Fig. 1: Prototype plan of the street lighting system. source technology (such as LED technology) whichThe rest of the paper has been designed as under:ensures longer life span and environmental impact [7-9].chapter 2 provides a summary of the research effortsTao et al  have proposed the intelligent street lightingalready done or the state of the art techniques, insystemby using a renewable energy source instead of thechapter 3 highlights the functional achievements,conventional power supply. The street lighting systemchapter 4 describes over all architecture of street lightingworksvia network of sensors to gather street lightsystem,chapter 5 deals with devices and method. Chapter information and sends to the microcontroller by utilizing6 shows details of implementation of street lightingZIGBEEprotocol [10]. Chen et al  have presented ansystem and chapter 7 presents conclusions.intelligent street lighting system with less number of sensors and a monitoring station which is situated in Proposed Prototype and Functional Achievements: street lights. These devices sense the data about streetThe main theme of this paper is Enlargement of the systemlights and transfer the data to the control terminal in orderto ensure automatic working and remote maximize the fault tolerance. Tao has developed a lowThese two procedures can enhance the effectiveness of  power lighting control system, wherein nodes workthestreet lighting system to reduce the power autonomously to locate and identify communicationconsumption and maintenance costs. This section shows problem via a remote control system for taking correctivethe requirements of street lighting system to achieve theaction in the event of power failure [2].above two procedure.Streetlighting systems, particularly within the publicFirst, the street lights behavior should be alteredsector, are still being designed according to the oldautonomously based on environmental condition. Thestandardsof reliability and they don’t exploit the mostsystem should able to predict some individuality of therecent technology. Electricity is the major requirement inenvironment such as passage of vehicle and people.thedeveloping countries like India, a big chunk of powerSecond, the street lights should adjust the illuminationis utilized in the street lights. Manual control of streetlevel(dim or bright) based on the environment situation.lightsresults in considerable wastage of power. There isFinally, the mandatory requirements of the street lightingnopossibility of dynamic monitoring. Maintenancesystem are to communicate with control terminal byexpenses are high too. All these arise due to absence ofutilizing some wireless communication technology sucha Remote Control technique. Considering these issue, thisas GPRS and GSM. paper proposes an automatic solar panel based LED StreetThe aim of this system is to provide a street lightinglighting system which ensures lower power consumption,system which works automatically to the role of streetlower operating costs, no insect swarming and for makingwalkers at night times. The (Fig. 1) shows the prototypecitiessmarter [11-16].plan of the street lighting system. The solar street lamp   Middle-East J. Sci. Res., 23 (4): 573-579, 2015 575Fig. 2: Shows the overall architecture of street lighting system. postconsists of sensors (Light Sensor, PIR Sensor), solar  Devices and Methods:  panel and LED Street lights. Every lamp post has beenconnected to the server based on zigbee technology(wireless). Each and every LED lights emit power according to the number of LED’s and watts of the LEDfetched in the lamp post [17].As per this paper, the two lights will glow (singlelamp post) automatically, when the person reaches the previous lamp post. An accordance with light sensor,modern lighting units have their power levels adjusted sothat lighting levels (dimming) can be reduced when trafficflows are low or at off peak times. They can be turned upto full power when needed. The dimming of LED’s savesenergy. System Architecture: The system consists ofamonitoring station on each lamp post and base station liesinclose proximity area for all the street lights. Themonitoring station uses the sensors, to scrutinizesome factors such as light intensity, climate (or)environment condition, season and various factors, basedFig. 3: Schematic image of Street Station.onthis factors street lights will automatically turn ON or OFF. Monitoring Station: Monitoring station is placed eachThe sensedinformation of a measuring stationlamp post. It has various types of sensors such as Lightissent to the base station via wireless communication.Sensor, PIR Sensor, Hall Sensor and Emergency Device.In the event of failure, information is transmitted toAll these sensors work together and transmit thethe service engineer through GUI to take necessaryinformation to the microcontroller, then the sensed dataaction.are processed and remedial action is taken.   Middle-East J. Sci. Res., 23 (4): 573-579, 2015 576Fig. 4: Light Sensor Fig. 5: PIR Sensor  Light Sensor: A Light Sensor (Figure 4) is used to sensedevices and then the operator informs the technician tothe illumination level of the street light and surroundingtake right action. It helps to recuperate fault maintenances brightnessof the sunlight. The sensed information is sentand system management. to a microcontroller in order to maintain the constantlighting level of the street light [18]. Emergency Device: The Emergency Device (Figure 7) isThereare different types of Light Sensors such asconnected to inclusive sensor network and is used in thePhoto transistor, Photo Diodes and Photo Resistor. In thiscase of any emergency situation (system abortivesystem Photo Transistor is used to change the lightingcondition). When the emergency device is activated, thelevel based on the weather condition. The exploit of thislight lamps of the entire street are turned OFF. The systemsensoris required in some cases such as, in morning andshould be active all the time but it is not required at dayat dusk but it is not required at daytime. The electricaltime. power is saved through the use of this sensor, because itiscontrolled by pooled action of sensor and Base Station Control: Base Station Control is used tomicrocontroller, to provide minimum illumination of themonitor the street lights through Graphical User Interfacestreetlight as required.(GUI). This system shows hallucination of entire street Presence Sensor: The utility of PIR (Figure 5) sensor isThe Base Station system is interfaced with computer to identify the passage of vehicles and perambulator. Invia Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter India, particularly in rural area there is no passage of(UART). It receives sensed information of street lightsvehicles or perambulator at mid night. If the street lightfrom monitoring station by utilizing ZIGBEE device. glowsall over night, the wastage of power occurs more.(Figure 8) shows Graphical User Interface of theTosolve this problem SE-10PIR Sensor is used in thisstreetlighting system. Through GUI, street lights can besystem.controlled remotely by sending commands over ZIGBEEPIR Sensor is used to Turn ON the street light; onlynetwork. When clicking Power Consumption, a seconditidentifies the passage of vehicles or people. The Sensorwindow (Figure 9) appears, showing total working time of should not be placed too low (to avoiding monitoring theindividual Street light and power consumption details.small animals) nor too high (can’t be sense kids or children).So the placement of the sensor should be at Zigbee Network: ZigBee is a wireless communicationright and is used to communicate with multiple Hall Sensor:  Hall Sensor is used to recognize, whetherIEEE 802.15.4 standard. ZigBee technology consumes lessthe street lights is switched ON or NOT. It mainly focusespower, high battery life and low cost comparing toon switched ON conditions. The system identifies and Bluetooth & Wi-Fi. Fig. 6: Hall Sensor Fig. 7: Emergency Devicesends the liability values to the base station via ZIGBEElighting system.devices in Wireless Personal Area Network. It is based on
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