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Cei, Ruiz, Beçak_1982_Odontophrynus Barrioi, A New Species of Anuran From Argentina

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Description
Odontophrynus barrioi description
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  Journal of Herpetology, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 97-102, 1982 Copyright 1982 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Odontophrynus barrioi, a New Species of Anuran from Argentina J. M. CEI,1'2 I. R. G. RUIZ,3 AND W. BEqAK3 'Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, Dpto. Ciencias Naturales, Cordoba, Argentina 2Rancho Somuncurd, Rua Fausto de Figueiredo Birre, 2750 Cascais, Portugal 3Servigo e Genetica, Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, Brasil (address reprint request to Beqak) ABSTRACT.-A new species of Odontophrynus from 2200 m altitude in the Sierra de Famatina, Argentina, is described. Morphological as well as cytogenetic features differentiate the new species, 0. barrioi, from the populations of the 0. occidentalis group. The genus Odontophrynus is wide- spread in several regions of southern and eastern South America. In arid and subarid territories of western Argen- tina, Odontophrynus occidentalis (Berg, 1898) is predominant, sympatric with 0. americanus in the eastern pampean boundaries. The range of the group ex- tends in subandean areas along the Cor- dilleran Mountains, at 500 to 2000 m of altitude in Catamarca and the La Rioja Mountains in the north. Southwards it reaches northern Patagonia in Rio Ne- gro and Neuquen Provinces, but mar- ginal populations are also found east- wards in the pampean reliefs of the Sierras of Cordoba and San Luis and on the sandy Atlantic coasts of Buenos Aires Province (Savage and Cei, 1965; Barrio, 1964; Cei, 1980a) (Fig. 1). Having in mind the characteristic cy- togenetic features of 0. americanus whose diploid-tetraploid populations were described by Beqak et al. (1966, 1970), a comparative populational study on 0. occidentalis was carried out. Dur- ing this study polyploid populations of 0. occidentalis were not detected. How- ever, significant karyotypic differences in heterochromatin patterns were found between an isolated population from the extra-Andean Famatina massif in La Rioja Province, and several other pop- ulations ranging from Mendoza to the southernmost localities in the species distribution (Ruiz et al., in press). Be- sides the karyotypic differences, these populations are different in several morphological and biological character- istics. The isolated population from the La Rioja Mountains lies in a geographical area characterized by striking ende- misms (Cei, 1980b), and is described as a new form of the genus. Holotype and paratypes are deposited in the Zoolog- ical Museum of the University of Sao Paulo (MZUSP). Odontophrynus barrioi sp. nov. (Fig. 2) Holotype.-MZUSP 57635. An adult male, from Aguadita springs, 2200 m, 30 km north of the village of Famatina, Sierra de Famatina, La Rioja Province, Argentina, collected on 17 November 1978 by J. M. Cei. Paratypes.-MZUSP 57635-57638, two adult males; 57636-57639, two adult fe- males; 57640-57647; eight juvenile specimens; all the same data as the ho- lotype. Definition.-A stout Odontophrynus of the occidentalis group, characterized by small, high head; nostril very near tip of snout; diameter of eye about equal to its distance from nostril; interorbital distance about one-half width of upper eyelid; no well defined parotoid glands; irregularly arranged rounded glandular warts; lateral fringes poorly developed on fingers; metatarsal tubercle shovel- like, moderately developed; short fore-  J. M. CEI ET AL. 700 60? 30? 40? 0 200 400 600 1 . I I i km 700 60? FIG. 1. Tentative distribution of the Odontophrynus ccidentalis group in western and central Argen- tina (hatched area). Type-locality of 0. barrioi n Sierra de Famatina, La Rioja Province (black area). limb and hind limb; tibia equal to fe- mur; vertebral light stripe absent. Description of the Holotype.-Body chubby, with stout forelimbs and hind limbs. Head small, high, wider than long, one-fourth body length. Snout short and rounded, sharply truncate in profile. Nostril lateral, nearer tip of snout than eye. Diameter of eye about equal to distance from nostril to ante- rior corner of eye. Interorbital distance equal to distance between nostrils, and about one-half width of upper eyelid. Canthus rostralis bluntly rounded. Pu- pil elliptical; tympanum concealed; two flattened glandular warts between eye and tympanum; an enlarged bulky gland on upper eyelid. Tongue rounded, one-half width of mouth opening, its posterior border free, slightly notched; vomerine teeth in two transverse round patches between choanae. Forelimb strong and short; heavy glandular patch on upper surface of forearms. Adpressed forelimb with fourth finger crossing middle of body. First finger longer than second and fourth, reaching penultimate phalanx of third. Lateral fringes of fingers slightly developed; shovel-like tubercle on base of first finger; palmar tubercles rounded. Hind limb short, stout, tarso- metatarsal articulation reaching axilla. Tibia equal to femur. Tibial glandular patches present. Toes slightly webbed; subarticular tubercles of toes soft, rounded. Inner metatarsal tubercle shovel-like, unpigmented, moderately 300 98  A NEW ODONTOPHRYNUS FIG. 2. A. Holotype of Odontophrynus barrioi rom Famatina Mountains, La Rioja Province, Argentina. B. A male specimen of 0. occidentalis from Malargue, Mendoza Province, Argentina. Bar equals 2 cm. developed and cornified; outer small, rounded. Tarsal ridge shovel-like, dis- tinct. Heels touching with hind limbs bent at right angles to body. Dorsal skin granular, with scattered, irregularly arranged, rounded glandu- lar warts. Parotoid glands irregular, rounded. Venter heavily granular everywhere, more distinctly granular in coxal and anal regions. A transverse fold of skin across throat, denoting presence of vocal sac, almost unpig- mented externally. A faint gray brown- ish nuptial pad on thumb. Coloration in Life.-Brownish above; faint lateral and dorsal yellowish lon- gitudinal bands recognizable; warts darker brown. Ventrally bluish or brownish, with scattered white granuli. No light vertebral stripe present. Col- oration in alcohol. Dorsally gray yellow- ish; dorsal warts darker; ventrally whit- ish. Measurements of the Holotype (in mm).-Snout-vent 56; head length 18.5; head width 23.5; hind limb 63; forelimb 29; axilla-groin 25.5. Measurements of Paratypes (in mm).- Males: snout-vent 48-52.5; head length 16.5-18; head width 23-24; hind limb 56-57; forelimb 31-32; axilla-groin 24-25. Females: snout-vent 53.5-55; head length 18-18; head width 21-25; hind limb 52-59; forelimb 28.5-31; ax- illa-groin 28.5-29. Size range in juve- nile specimens: 27-37. Distribution.-Known only from the type-locality (Fig. 1). Etymology.-The species is named af- ter the late Avelino Barrio, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, who con- tributed much to the ecological knowl- edge of this anuran group. Remarks.-Significant differences be- tween the tadpoles of Famatina Odon- tophrynus and tadpoles of Odontophrynus occidentalis rom Mendoza Province have been also observed (Cei and Crespo, in press). Tadpoles of Odontophrynus barrioi (stages 35-42, after Gossner, 1960) show stouter and darker bodies; snout bluntly rounded, less protruding than in occi- dentalis larvae; spiraculum opening dor- solaterally; different internasal dis- tance; nostrils more laterally located; tip of tail gently rounded, almost acu- minate in occidentalis; ower beak more heavily pigmented, with stronger den- ticulations; and less broadly inter- rupted second upper row of denticles. Larval characteristics support the dif- ferences in morphology of adults. 99  J. M. CEI ET AL. B B 9 FIG. 3. Dorsal and lateral aspects of 0. barrioi (A) and 0. occidentalis B). Bar equals 2 cm. Odontophrynus barrioi at first sight ap- pears larger and stouter than occiden- talis, with a smaller and more truncate head and shorter forelimbs and hind limbs. In comparison with our descrip- tion of 0. barrioi, 0. occidentalis (Berg, 1898) has the head length contained less than 3/2 times in the body length; nostrils nearer to eye than to tip of snout; diameter of eye greater than its distance from nostril; interorbital dis- tance equal to upper eyelid; fringes of fingers well developed; subarticular tu- bercles of toes strong, prominent; inner shovel-like metatarsal tubercle very strong, cornified, black-pigmented; tibia shorter than femur; adpressed forelimb with fourth finger crossing groin; tarso- metatarsal articulation reaching be- tween tympanum and eye; heels sepa- rated with hind limbs bent at right angles to body. Significant osteological differences are also present (Crespo and Cei, in press). Moreover, different skin structure and coloration may be recog- nized: the parotoid glands larger, sym- metrical in 0. occidentalis (Fig. 3); en- larged glandular patches rather regularly arranged in dorsal longitudi- nal rows; the venter is more heavily granular yellowish, darker on lower hind limb surfaces. The dorsum is olive brown with indistinct yellowish shades; a light vertebral stripe. Throat of males intensely black; faint grayish nuptial thumb pads. A combination of 16 dif- ferent morphological characters sup- port specific divergence between O. oc- cidentalis and 0. barrioi. Ecology and reproduction of this iso- lated species from the subarid environ- ments of La Rioja sierras are practi- cally unknown. Tadpoles in all stages of development were found from Oc- tober to April in small pools of running water in their montane habitat. As in O. occidentalis, adults are fossorial and se- cretive, difficult to observe except in the mating periods. Under the same environmental con- ditions the rate of growth of 0. barrioi is apparently more accelerated than in 0. occidentalis. Metamorphosed toads of both species were captured in Octo- ber-November 1978 in the Famatina and Chacras de Coria (near the city of Mendoza), and were placed, at about the same time, under laboratory condi- tions in Sao Paulo. However, after nine months, significant differences be- tween the two samples were found in size and development. On 1 August 1979, the 0. occidentalis sample ranged from 34 to 55 mm (xl = 43.4); the 0. bar- rioi sample from 50 to 60 mm (x1 = 57.0). DISCUSSION The population here described as O. barrioi has 2n = 22 chromosomes (Ruiz et al., in press), as do other diploid species of the genus Odontophrynus, nd a secondary constriction on the short arm of pair 11. Silver stain-banding pat- terns showing the active ribosomal gene sites in pair 11 are similar in all O. occidentalis populations. C-banding, however, is different in pairs 1 and 2. 0. barrioi has a block of constitutive het- erochromatin on the pericentromeric area of the metacentric pair 1, mostly on the short arm. This feature does not 100
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