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A knowledge management framework to support product-service systems design

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A knowledge management framework to support product-service systems design
  See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: A knowledge management framework tosupport product-service system design  Article   in  International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing · December 2009 DOI: 10.1080/09511920903207464 · Source: DBLP CITATIONS 44 READS 204 5 authors , including: Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects: Score board of competitiveness of European transport manufacturing industries   View projectknowledge management for maintenance and service of engineering products   View projectDavid BaxterUniversity of Southampton 43   PUBLICATIONS   399   CITATIONS   SEE PROFILE Rajkumar RoyCranfield University 251   PUBLICATIONS   3,574   CITATIONS   SEE PROFILE James GaoUniversity of Greenwich 101   PUBLICATIONS   979   CITATIONS   SEE PROFILE All content following this page was uploaded by David Baxter on 10 January 2017. The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file. All in-text references underlined in blue are added to the srcinal documentand are linked to publications on ResearchGate, letting you access and read them immediately.  International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, Volume 22, Issue 12, 2009,Pages 1073-1088  A knowledge management framework to support product-service systemsdesign David Baxter; Rajkumar Roy; Athanasia Doultsinou; James Gao; Mohamad KaltaAbstract This paper presents a framework for knowledge reuse in a Product-Service Systems design scenario. The project aim is to develop a methodology to capture, represent and reuse knowledge to support productdevelopment in a collaborative enterprise context. The three core elements are: design knowledge,manufacturing capability knowledge, and service knowledge. There are three principal components of the proposed methodology. The first is a process based design model: defining design according to specific tasks,and associating previous knowledge with those tasks. The second is manufacturing capability knowledge:supporting feature based design and manufacture through representing machining features, best practices inmachining and inspection, and machining capability. The third component is service knowledge: ensuring thatdesign takes account of the service requirement. The developing paradigm of Product-Service Systems andthe requirement for co-design of products and services has influenced the structure of the knowledge base, aswell as outlining specific service related requirements. This paper presents the proposed knowledge basestructure along with a detailed case study in which the proposal was developed and validated.Keywords: design; innovation management; product development; design for service; design for manufacture;knowledge management Introduction This paper aims to address some of the challenges from the developing Product-Service Systems (PSS) paradigm in a manufacturing context. Manufacturing companies are generating an increasing proportion of their revenue through service. This recognition of the increasing importance of service led to the developmentof the servitization paradigm, in which products and services are offered to customers as an integrated package: servitization is considered as a position where product and service are inseparable (Morelli 2002).PSS, as a special case of servitization (Baines et al., 2008) focuses on the combination of products andservices to deliver customer value.Companies who design and manufacture products are uniquely able to apply their in-depth engineeringknowledge to the variety of customer applications. This in-depth product knowledge also gives them asignificant advantage in offering maintenance and repair services. The compelling business case for offeringservices as an addition to products is strongly linked to the significantly higher profit margins available indownstream, or customer facing, operations (Wise, 1999).There are few studies on the impact of a PSS business strategy on the product-and-service design strategy. Itis recognised in literature that it is not sufficient to simply design products and add service: system leveldesign is necessary (Aurich et al., 2006).A key challenge in the development of technical products is managing product data. Because managing product data is such a challenge, particularly in a life cycle context, the design process and resulting business  model of engineering companies is often centred on the ‘master product model’ concept. Since we haveidentified that products and services are required to be designed in concert, and that organisations areincreasingly focused on the delivery of service, this business model must be scrutinised in light of thedeveloping PSS paradigm. PSS design includes not only integrated product-and-service design but also business process design: the company who developed the PSS must also develop and implement the systemsto deliver it.Integrated Technical Product-Service System (t-PSS) design will rely on a structured approach to thedevelopment of the product and service. This includes the requirement to adapt the master product modelconcept in light of the PSS design challenge. This requirement is considered here in terms of knowledgereuse: how can company knowledge, in particular product models, manufacturing methods, and servicemethods, be represented in such a way that supports the change in focus required as a result of the emergingPSS design challenge?This paper describes the development of an integrated knowledge management framework to support PSSdesign. The framework is demonstrated using examples from a detailed case study. Literature review This section describes the theoretical underpinning of this research from the following categories: designknowledge reuse, manufacturing capability, and PSS design.1.1.  Design knowledge reuse In order to briefly describe the context of this project, some references to knowledge management literaturewill be made. The paradigm of ‘knowledge reuse’ makes various assumptions, including a technocratic viewof knowledge management (Earl 2001) with codification as the primary focus (Hansen et al., 1999). It is further assumed that the development of mature products can effectively rely upon explicit knowledgecommunicated through information systems (Hansen et al., 1999).In previous work, we developed a method to reuse engineering design knowledge (Baxter et al., 2007). Threeknowledge types were supported: process knowledge, product knowledge, and task knowledge. The design process made reference to the product model at the activity level. The process based design knowledge reusemethod provides project guidance and monitoring, a framework to organise information and knowledgeretrieval, and a central repository of product data. This framework will be adapted and extended to takeaccount of design, manufacturing and service knowledge in a PSS design context.1.2.  Manufacturing capability research Manufacturing capability research can be considered in two categories: strategy level and operations level.Strategy level manufacturing capability research is concerned with issues such as production capacity andorganisational strategy. Operations level manufacturing capability research addresses capability at themachine level, and often refers to Statistical Process Control (SPC – see, for example, Yu et al., 2005;Motorcu & Güllü 2006; Gijo 2005). The manufacturing case study in this research is aimed at operations levelcapability, and in particular, machining capability. In machining capability research, feedback to design is notwell addressed. Manufacturing process planning research is largely focused on the development of automatedsolutions (e.g. Yongtao & Jingying 2006; Aziz & Chassapis 2005). Whilst automation saves time in execution, the detailed knowledge capture exercise associated with knowledge based systems is an expensive process, applicable only in large companies (Yoo & Kim 2002).  Manufacturing process planning is also relevant, as a key consideration in product development. For adescription of computer aided process planning, see (Culler & Burd 2007). There is some conflict in applying process planning systems at the conceptual stage of design, due to the high level of detail required for CAPPand the lack of standard frameworks for manual process planning to support the reuse of manufacturingmethods. Our research indicates that industry practice in machining process planning still relies on manual processes. As such, we are advocating a lightweight knowledge management method that provides knowledgeof best practices with minimal implementation and maintenance effort.1.3.  Service knowledge research Service is a core element of PSS design. There are few formal approaches to service knowledge capture andreuse available in the literature, indicating that it is a developing area. Current developments in service andmaintenance literature are tending towards intelligent monitoring: prognostics and health management, whichcombines monitoring (Masri et al, 2004; Yao & Warren, 2005) with computational methods (Dunsdon et al, 2008) and algorithmic analysis in an integrated framework (Lee et al, 2006) to optimise maintenanceintervention. This predictive maintenance and intelligent service management does not take account of normative practices (Scandura et al. 2004) such as crew checklists in aircraft. It also does not include designfeedback mechanisms.1.4.  PSS Design Research The developing PSS research field shows that within an integrated product-service system, the product,service and business model need to be developed in an integrated fashion.Baines et al (2008) discuss the state of the art in PSS, stating that a PSS is “an integrated product and serviceoffering that delivers value in use”. They suggest that a successful PSS needs to be designed from a client perspective, at the system level. They also suggest that organisational structures of PSS providers must changein order to support PSS delivery. They conclude that there is currently limited guidance for PSS design anddelivery. Tukker and Tischner (2006) also propose that new business models are a key element of PSS, andthat careful design of the PSS is required. Evans et al. (2007) found that the producer must play a key role inProduct-Service System design, whilst also working closely with other supply chain members. This is due tothe producer having intimate knowledge of design and of high volume manufacturing. They investigated 10companies in the food industry. Morelli (2002) suggests that PSS design must develop methods to takeaccount of shifts in cultural norms, and that improved methods to represent services are required.The life cycle oriented technical service design method (Aurich et al., 2004) was later modified to incorporatePSS concepts (Aurich et al., 2006). This method proposes an integrated, systematic approach to product andservice design. They suggest an integrated process model that applies processes from a library. Their methodsdo not indicate how to reuse PSS knowledge and information. Tukker and Mont also emphasise the need tofocus on the system perspective in PSS design (Mont & Tukker 2006).The key message of PSS design research to date is that a PSS design methodology is required to support twokey elements: conceptualisation of the PSS itself and of the supporting business model. Existing designmethodologies and tools are recognised to have a potential contribution to PSS design, however they must bemodified or extended to properly reflect the PSS design problem. It is not the intention of this research todevelop a PSS design methodology, rather to develop a framework that supports knowledge reuse in a t-PSSdesign scenario. The framework must therefore support product, service and business model design.  1.5.  Knowledge structure for PSS modelling  Knowledge modelling enables the efficient interchange of data relating throughout the system life cycle.Various models have been proposed, such as the manufacturing knowledge model developed by Guerra-Zubiaga and Young (2008). Robust, web-based technical solutions to data exchange include ontology models.Ye et al. (2008) demonstrate an ontology for integrating supply chain management activities. As this research progressed and uncovered the emerging requirements of PSS, it was identified that they would have asignificant impact on the structure of the knowledge reuse framework. The challenge of PSS design includesthe co-development of products, services and business models. As such, a product centric structure (e.g.Young et al., 2007, Guerra-Zubiaga and Young, 2008) is no longer appropriate. There are some exceptions tothis: in very large scale products such as ships, a significant part of the life cycle management challenge isconfiguration management. In this large-single-product environment, a central product model is anappropriate structure for PSS management. In smaller scale products such as vacuum pumps, several hundred pumps may be installed at a single customer site. The range of products in place and the range of applicationseach product is applied to results in a need to focus at the broader ‘system’ level in order to effectivelymanage the PSS life cycle.Three classes are commonly applied as an upper level structure for both product- and software- developmentmodelling purposes: Product, Process and Resource (PPR). Maropoulos et al (2002) apply the PPR classes toa manufacturing planning problem: integrating design and manufacturing. Chandra and Kamrani (2003) applythe PPR classes to a knowledge management framework to support product design in an extended enterprisescenario. Both methods extend the PPR class structure in order to support detailed descriptions of additionaldomains such as design, manufacturing, and maintenance. Huang and Mak (1999) describe the need tointegrate PPR in a design (concurrent engineering) activity. In each case, the application of PPR classesenables a range of activities and items to be described in order to support product design. The methods do notappear to support service- or organisation- design.The srcinal application of the three PPR classes appears to come from computer science. Fenton (1991) madereference to them in his 1991 book on software metrics. The widespread adoption of CAD systems, plus theintroduction of product data management (PDM) systems contribute towards the need to formalise productdescriptions. Concurrent engineering, and in particular computer applications to support it, brings about theneed to describe the downstream activities (processes and resources) that constitute the domain of interest.Software models of design processes and artefacts require a structured description of the constituent elementsin a way that is easily transferred to a software system. The direct application of a software modellingapproach makes sense from the perspective that: since it will be described using a software system, thedescription method can directly apply software modelling methods. Case companies During this research project, three companies have been engaged at varying levels. Each company will bedescribed in terms of their products and markets, their approach to design, and their maturity with respect toPSS.Company 1 are a manufacturer of vacuum pumps for a variety of industrial applications. Their principalmarket is the semiconductor industry, within which many critical processes operate in a vacuum and require process gas removal. The nature of the semiconductor industry brings two conflicting requirements: ultra highreliability due to the high expectation of the technologically advanced industry and the high value of semiconductors, coupled with the ability to cope with aggressive chemicals and materials involved insemiconductor manufacturing and equipment cleaning processes. Design is very much technically driven:engineering knowledge is highly regarded in this company. Historically, the key focus in the design process
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