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A knowledge-driven GIS modeling technique for groundwater potential mapping at the Upper Langat Basin, Malaysia

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A knowledge-driven GIS modeling technique for groundwater potential mapping at the Upper Langat Basin, Malaysia
  See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: A knowledge-driven GIS modeling techniquefor groundwater potential mapping at theUpper Langat Basin, Malaysia  Article   in  Arabian Journal of Geosciences · May 2013 DOI: 10.1007/s12517-011-0469-2 CITATIONS 50 READS 821 5 authors , including: Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects: Semi-quantitative landslide risk assessment using GIS-based exposure analysis in Kuala Lumpur CityView projectUrban Growth Simulation   View projectMohamad abd manapMinistry of Natural Resources and Environme… 9   PUBLICATIONS   164   CITATIONS   SEE PROFILE M. F. RamliUniversiti Putra Malaysia 89   PUBLICATIONS   360   CITATIONS   SEE PROFILE Biswajeet PradhanUniversiti Putra Malaysia 406   PUBLICATIONS   8,259   CITATIONS   SEE PROFILE All content following this page was uploaded by Biswajeet Pradhan on 17 December 2016. The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file. All in-text references underlined in blue are added to the srcinal documentand are linked to publications on ResearchGate, letting you access and read them immediately.  ORIGINAL PAPER  A knowledge-driven GIS modeling technique for groundwaterpotential mapping at the Upper Langat Basin, Malaysia Mohamad Abd Manap  &  Wan Nor Azmin Sulaiman  & Mohammad Firuz Ramli  &  Biswajeet Pradhan  & Noraini Surip Received: 9 August 2011 /Accepted: 27 October 2011 # Saudi Society for Geosciences 2011 Abstract  The aim of this paper is to use a knowledge-driven expert-based geographical information system (GIS)model coupling with remote-sensing-derived parameters for groundwater potential mapping in an area of the Upper Langat Basin, Malaysia. In this study, nine groundwater storage controlling parameters that affect groundwater occurrences are derived from remotely sensed imagery,available maps, and associated databases. Those parametersare: lithology, slope, lineament, land use, soil, rainfall,drainage density, elevation, and geomorphology. Then the parameter layers were integrated and modeled using a knowledge-driven GIS of weighted linear combination. Theweightage and score for each parameter and their classesare based on the Malaysian groundwater expert opinionsurvey. The predicted groundwater potential map wasclassified into four distinct zones based on the classificationscheme designed by Department of Minerals andGeoscience Malaysia (JMG). The results showed that about 17% of the study area falls under low-potential zone, with66% on moderate-potential zone, 15% with high-potentialzone, and only 0.45% falls under very-high-potential zone.The results obtained in this study were validated with thegroundwater borehole wells data compiled by the JMG andshowed 76% of prediction accuracy. In addition statisticalanalysis indicated that hard rock dominant of the study area is controlled by secondary porosity such as distance fromlineament and density of lineament. There are highcorrelations between area percentage of predicted ground-water potential zones and groundwater well yield. Resultsobtained from this study can be useful for future planningof groundwater exploration, planning and development byrelated agencies in Malaysia which provide a rapid methodand reduce cost as well as less time consuming. The resultsmay be also transferable to other areas of similar hydro-logical characteristics. Keywords  Remote sensing.Geographical informationsystem (GIS).Knowledge driven.Groundwater potential.Malaysia  Introduction Groundwater is defined as subsurface water that fills all the pore space of soils and geologic formations below the water table (Freeze and Cherry 1979). Groundwater flows in the aquifer layer towards the point of discharge, which includeswells, springs, rivers, lakes, and the ocean. Groundwater makes up about 60% of the world ’ s freshwater supply,which is about 0.6% of the entire world ’ s water (EPA2009). Groundwater also is recognized as one of the most valuable natural resources, immensely important and M. A. ManapMinerals and Geoscience Department (JMG),19-22th Floor, Bangunan Tabung Haji, Jalan Tun Razak,50658, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia W. N. A. Sulaiman :  M. F. RamliFaculty of Environmental Studies,University of Putra Malaysia (UPM),43400, Serdang, Malaysia B. Pradhan ( * )Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Spatial and NumericalModelling Laboratory, University Putra Malaysia (UPM),43400, Serdang, Malaysia e-mail: biswajeet24@gmail.comB. Pradhane-mail: N. SuripRemote Sensing Agency, No 13 Jalan Tun Ismail,50480, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Arab J GeosciDOI 10.1007/s12517-011-0469-2  dependable source of water supply in all climatic region of all over the world (Todds and Mays 2005). The growingdemand of these resource commodities in every part of theworld are due to several reasons such as increment of  population, agriculture, rapid industrialization (Pradhan2009), and urbanization (Ettazarini 2007). Groundwater is in severe demand in Malaysia wheresurface water supply is inadequate and non-existent.Groundwater also has become a highly researchable topicespecially during water crisis of drought period and beingsuggested as alternative sources for surface water. For example in Malaysia, the whole of Selangor state hasexperienced severe water shortage in the early year of 1998.Recent study mentioned that the demand for water (surfaceand groundwater) in Malaysia has been projected toincrease by 63% from 2000 to 2050. According to theMinistry of Natural Resources and Environment (NRE),Malaysia, groundwater in Malaysia is underutilized (only2%) and need to be exploited further. This is due to thefailure of recognizing vast potential of the invisiblegroundwater resources in the country.Due to the growing importance of groundwater for urbanarea in Malaysia, this paper aims to collect a groundwater expert opinion survey as well as to utilize the capabilities of remotely sensed imagery coupling with GIS modelingtechnique for predicting groundwater potential zones in theUpper Langat Basin, Selangor. For more specific objectives,first is to extract the groundwater storage controlling parameters from satellite images, digital elevation model(DEM) and ancillary data such as map, report, and databases.Secondly, to delineate groundwater potential zones throughintegration of various thematic maps and analyzed using GISmodeling technique of weighted linear combination method.Lastly, the result of predicted groundwater potential map wasvalidated by using actual groundwater borehole wells. Thecorrelation and significant relationship among groundwater storagecontrollingparameterswithrespecttothegroundwater occurrences was also tested. Previous work  Generally speaking, conventional approaches for ground-water exploration using geological, hydrogeological, andgeophysical methods involve high cost, time consuming,and uneconomical. Conventional methods of explorationmay not be highly reliable due to assessment of diversefactors which affects the presence of groundwater. Remotesensing sensors with its advantages of spatial, spectral, andtemporal availability of data covering large and inaccessibleareas within short time has become a very handy tool inexploring, evaluating, and managing vital groundwater resources (Teeuw 1995; Jha et al. 2007). Similarly, GIS is an efficient tool for manipulating and storing large volumesof data, integrating spatial and non-spatial information in a single system, offering a consistent framework for analyz-ing the spatial variation, allowing manipulation of geo-graphical information, and allowing connection betweenentities based on geographical proximity(Pradhan 2010a , 2010b, 2011; Pradhan et al. 2010a , b, c). Jha et al. (2007) categorized six major areas of remote sensing and GISapplications in groundwater hydrology: (1) exploration andassessment of groundwater resources, (2) selection of artificial recharge sites, (3) GIS-based subsurface flow and pollution modeling, (4) groundwater pollution hazardassessment and protection planning, (5) estimation of natural recharge distribution, and (6) hydrogeologic data analysis and process monitoring.The use of remote sensing and GIS techniques has rapidlyincreased since early 1990s (Jha et al. 2007) in groundwater   potential mapping with successful results (Chowdhury et al.2009; Jasrotia et al. 2007). Many researchers have applied different types of GIS modeling techniques such as weightedlinear combination(WLC) (Vijith 2007; Madrucci et al. 2008; Dar et al. 2011), weighted aggregation method (Solomon and Quiel 2006; Prasad et al. 2008), index overlay method (Muthikrishnan and Manjunatha  2008), and multicriteria analysis of analytical hierarchy process (Chowdhury et al.2009; Pradhan 2009). Statistical based approaches are also applied in groundwater potential mapping (Oh et al. 2011).On the other hand, few researchers (Dinesh Kumar et al.2007; Thomas et al. 2009; Srivastava and Bhattacharya  2006; Chowdhury et al. 2009) have applied similar types of  WLC approach for groundwater potential mapping. Basedon the aforementioned literature review, number of ground-water storage controlling parameters or factors has been usedin the groundwater potential studies. It is totally based on theauthor  ’ s interest or available datasets. Some of them haveused four parameters (Saraf and Choudhury 1998), five  parameters (Ettazarini 2007), six parameters (Ganapuram et  al. 2009; Nagarajan and Singh 2009), seven parameters (Ballukraya and Kalimuthu 2010; Srivastava and Bhattacharya  2006; Musa et al. 2000), and nine parameters to generate groundwater potential map. However, none of researchers have used more than ten parameters in their groundwater potential studies.Lithology, geomorphology, drainage pattern, lineament density, soil, topographic slope, land use, relief, and rainfallare some of the important parameters that have beenfrequently used by the researchers. Moreover, few other  parameters that also has been used in groundwater potentialstudies such as recharge, surface water (Chowdhury et al.2009), water divide zone (Pradhan 2009), distance to water   bodies, resistivity (Dinesh Kumar et al. 2007), river  gradient (Srivastava and Bhattacharya  2006), overburden thickness, aquifer thickness, aspect, yield (Prasad et al. Arab J Geosci  2008), water table, clay depth, joints (Madrucci et al. 2008), vegetation, infiltration capacity, runoff, moisture content,electrical conductivity, and water quality.Recently, many studies have been reported using remotesensing and GIS for groundwater potential mapping inMalaysia. Musa et al. (2000) used an integrated remotesensing, GIS technique, and modified DRASTIC model toclassify groundwater potential zones in Langat Basin. Theyhave integrated eight spatial layers, i.e., annual rainfall,land use, soil, elevation, slope, drainage density, lithology,and lineament density for the generation of five categoriesof groundwater yield. They also found that almost allalluvial plains have high yield of groundwater while in thehard rock areas, groundwater yield was high in areas of high lineament and low drainage densities. Yahaya et al.(2007) also used modified DRASTIC model and SPOTsatellite data in groundwater exploration studies for state of Kedah and Perlis. They used five thematic layer maps(rainfall, geology, land use, contour, and soil series) to produce a map of potential groundwater potential zone inPerlis state. However, the paper only presented the preliminary result of their study. In a recent paper, Suripet al. (2009) applied GIS-based weightage overlay for groundwater potential study in Perak. Their study utilizedremote sensing images of Landsat and Radarsat in extract-ing surface information such as land cover and structuralgeology. Seven parameters involved consist of land use,rainfall, soil characteristics, elevation, lithology, geomor- phology, and lineament density were analyzed usingweighted overlay to identify the potential sites of ground-water.From the above literature review, is it quite obvious that  previously, not much work has been done on groundwater  potential mapping in Malaysia. In this paper, a detailedgroundwater potential zonation map was produced usingremote-sensing-derived parameters and GIS. The purposeof this study was to provide a detailed groundwater  potential zonation map based on knowledge-driven GISmodel of the Upper Langat Basin. Groundwater status in Malaysia At present, less than 10% of the water usage is developedfrom groundwater resources in Malaysia. Domestic supplyused about 70% of the groundwater, followed by industrialsupply of 25% and 5% for agricultural uses (Karim 2006).Based on Minerals and Geoscience Department (JMG)records which was reported by the NRE, a total of 9,817groundwater wells were drilled including in the states of Sabah and Sarawak whereas state of Kelantan have thehighest number of drills, i.e., 1,955. However, Karim(2006) stated that only 3,000 wells were being used for human needs in Malaysia. Groundwater is being signifi-cantly utilized for public water supply only in the state of Kelantan and Perlis. Meanwhile other states such asTerengganu, Pahang, Sarawak, and Sabah have usedgroundwater as a supplement in their water supply systems.In Kelantan itself, about 70% of the total water supply isderived from groundwater, primarily in the Kota Bharuareas. Rural population depends very much on groundwater for their daily requirements by using shallow dug wells(Suratman 2004).The distribution of groundwater potential in Malaysia can be broadly grouped into four main groups of aquifer:alluvial, limestone/carbonate, sedimentary and volcanicrocks, and crystalline igneous rocks (Zawawi 2002).Detailed classification by Karim (2006) categorized the potential of groundwater resources into five main categoriesnamely shallow and deep alluvium, aquifers in shallow anddeep fractured rocks, and peat aquifer. The storage potentialof groundwater in Malaysia is estimated to be about 64 billion cubic meters. The term  “ hard rock  ”  commonlyapplies to hard and dense rocks with the main part of thegroundwater flowing in secondary structures, mainlyfractures (Solomon and Quiel 2006). The occurrence of  groundwater in hard rock terrain is found to be restrictedand subjected to greater complexity (Krishnmurthy et al.2000). According to Yahya and Suratman (2009), the hard rock aquifer in Peninsular Malaysia have been classifiedinto three main groups, i.e., granite, sedimentary (sand-stone/shale/mudstone, limestone, and phyllite/schist), andvolcanic rocks.JMG has been the lead government agency ingroundwater-related activities in Malaysia (Karim 2006).For example, JMG has conducted groundwater investiga-tions, groundwater development projects, and groundwater monitoring programs for each state in Malaysia. JMG alsohas done some technical inspection for the purpose of licensing of the source of mineral water, and has givenadvisory and hydrogeological information services todevelopers and individuals and created a hydrogeologydata base (MinGeoDat). Study area: the Upper Langat Basin of Selangor Study area characteristicsThe study area is the Upper Langat Basin which is locatedat the south eastern part of Selangor state, Malaysia. It iswithin the latitude 2°53 ′  north to 3°15 ′  north and longitude101°43 ′  east to 101°58 ′  east, with an area coverage of about 492 km 2 . This area includes several major towns such asKajang, Cheras, Pekan Batu 9, Pekan Batu 14, and PekanBatu 18 which is approximately 27 km from the city center  Arab J Geosci  of Kuala Lumpur. This area was chosen as a study area site because of several reasons. Firstly, the study region ismainly covered by a hard rock aquifer which is categorizedunder low and medium potential of groundwater. Secondly,the area has experienced the water shortage due to El Niñoeffect in the year 1998. Lastly, the important reason is that Empangan Langat supplies daily water usage to surround-ing community areas as well as an electrical hydro project falls within the study area. The basin boundaries of thestudy area (Fig. 1) were delineated using GIS. The HEC-GeoHMS Extension of Arcview software was used for that  purpose. GIS delineation is mainly based on DEM data.The operation of HEC-GeoHMS watershed delineationconsist of fill sinks, flow direction, flow accumulation,stream definition, stream segmentation, watershed delinea-tion, watershed polygon processing, and watershed aggre-gation (Rumman et al. 2005). The climate of the area is typically tropical withsignificant characteristics of hot and wet seasons through-out the year with humid conditions. In general, the Langat  basin has two monsoons a year, i.e., the northeast andsouthwest monsoons. The northeast monsoon occurs from November to March, while the southwest monsoon occursfrom May to September. In between the two monsoons are Fig. 1  Location map of thestudy area Arab J Geosci
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