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A Knowledge-Based Framework for the Description and Evaluation of Reality-Based Interaction

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This thesis presents Cognitive Description and Evaluation of Interaction (CoDeIn), a framework that allows one to describe, compare, and estimate completion times for tasks that are designed in a variety of interaction styles.Task time estimates
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    CoDeIn   A Knowledge-Based Frameworkfor the Description and Evaluationof Reality-Based Interaction A dissertationsubmitted byGeorgios ChristouIn partial fulfillment of the requirementsfor the degree of Doctor of PhilosophyinComputer Science Tufts University May 2007Adviser: Dr. Robert J. K. Jacob  Georgios Christouii Abstract This thesis presents Cognitive Description and Evaluation of Interaction(CoDeIn), a framework that allows one to describe, compare, and estimatecompletion times for tasks that are designed in a variety of interaction styles.Task time estimates based upon evaluations performed with CoDeIn areconsistently more accurate than evaluations carried out using existing model-based evaluation methods. This accuracy arises from several sources, includingseparating and distinguishing between different forms of knowledge necessaryfor performing the task. This distinction allows -- as not provided by other methods -- the ability to model non-expert task performance by estimatingknowledge and its effect upon task completion time.The accuracy of the CoDeIn methodology is supported by severalexperiments that compare the predictions produced by CoDeIn to actualmeasurements and predictions from the GOMSL methodology. To utilizeGOMSL, several sub-models must be created, including a model of grasping anda model for iterative shuffling of physical objects.I conclude that CoDeIn is in these circumstances more accurate and moreexpressive than GOMSL, due to the ability to account for and manipulaterepresentations of knowledge.  Georgios Christouiii Acknowledgements I wish to take this opportunity to thank all the people that made this workpossible.I would like to thank Professor Robert J. K. Jacob for his support,encouragement, and belief in me when I decided to work and write this thesisremotely. His guidance and inspiration are what made this work possible, and for that I am forever grateful. I am honored to be one of his students.I would also like to thank Professor Frank E. Ritter of Penn StateUniversity. His help instrumental in clarifying the goals and arguments, as well asdefining and analyzing the experiments presented in this work. I thank him for allthe hours that he put in reading and commenting many preliminary drafts of thisthesis.Special thanks to Professor Alva L. Couch. His help in the last phase of the writing of this thesis was more than one could hope. I thank him for the manyhours of discussion he devoted to help me write precisely and accurately. A huge debt of gratitude is owed to my father and mother in Cyprus whohave constantly pushed me to strive for the best, and for not ever letting me quit.Without them, I would not be who I am today.But the greatest gratitude is owed to my wife, Nafsika, for her love andsupport, for her never-ending faith in me, and for her understanding (for not beingalways there) during the preparation and completion of this thesis.This work was partly supported by National Science Foundation grant IIS-0414389. We gratefully acknowledge their support.  Georgios Christouiv Table of Contents CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................2   1.1 T HESIS O VERVIEW .......................................................................................................................6   1.2 B ACKGROUND ..............................................................................................................................8   1.3 M OTIVATION ..............................................................................................................................11   1.4 P ROBLEM R  EFINEMENT .............................................................................................................13   1.5 C ONTRIBUTIONS .........................................................................................................................14   CHAPTER 2 PREVIOUS WORK – INTERACTION STYLES................................................17   2.1 I  NTERACTION .............................................................................................................................17   2.2 D IRECT M ANIPULATION ............................................................................................................18   2.3 R  EALITY -B ASED I  NTERACTION .................................................................................................20   2.3.1 Virtual Reality...................................................................................................................23   2.3.2 Augmented Reality............................................................................................................25   2.3.3 Ubiquitous Computing......................................................................................................26    2.3.4 Tangible User Interfaces..................................................................................................27    2.4 S UMMARY ..................................................................................................................................29   CHAPTER 3 PREVIOUS WORK – TASK ANALYSIS.............................................................31   3.1 T ASK  A  NALYSIS .........................................................................................................................31   3.2 C OGNITIVE T ASK  A  NALYSIS .....................................................................................................32   3.3 V ARIETIES OF T ASK  A  NALYSIS M ETHODS ................................................................................35   3.3.1 Fitts’ Law...........................................................................................................................35   3.3.2 Norman’s Theory of Action..............................................................................................37    3.3.3 GOMS and MHP...............................................................................................................39   3.3.4 Task Knowledge Structures..............................................................................................45   3.4 S UMMARY ..................................................................................................................................49    Georgios Christouv CHAPTER 4 PREVIOUS WORK – AFFORDANCE AND CONSTRAINTS........................51   4.1 A FFORDANCE .............................................................................................................................51   4.1.1 Gibson’s Affordance.........................................................................................................52   4.1.2 Norman’s Affordance........................................................................................................53   4.1.3 Gaver’s Affordance...........................................................................................................54   4.1.4 Hartson’s Affordance........................................................................................................55   4.2 C ONSTRAINTS .............................................................................................................................57   4.3 S UMMARY ..................................................................................................................................58   CHAPTER 5 DEFINING INTERFACES USING USER AND WORLD KNOWLEDGE...60   5.1 N ATURAL , S IMPLE , AND C OMPLEX A CTIONS ...........................................................................61   5.2   C O D E I N   M ODELS .....................................................................................................................65   5.3 C ATEGORIZING T ASK  P RESENTATIONS IN U SER  I  NTERFACES .................................................68   5.4 D EFINING THE U SER  ..................................................................................................................75   5.5 D EFINING THE T ASK AND D ESIGN G ENERATION ......................................................................81   5.6 S UMMARY ..................................................................................................................................82   CHAPTER 6 MODELING THE TASK: DEFINITION OF CODEIN ..................................84   6.1 N OMENCLATURE ........................................................................................................................84   6.1.1 Data Objects......................................................................................................................85   6.1.2 Interaction Objects............................................................................................................87    6.1.3 Intermediary Objects........................................................................................................88   6.1.4 Bindings.............................................................................................................................90   6.1.5 Diagrammatic notation.....................................................................................................91   6.1.6 Examples............................................................................................................................95   6.2 U SING THE NOTATION FOR DESCRIPTION OF A TASK  ................................................................97   6.3 C HUNKING AND A UTOMATIC P ROCESSES ...............................................................................104   6.4 S UMMARY ................................................................................................................................106  
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