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A Knight’s Tale: a rare case of inter-personal violence from medieval Norton Priory, Cheshire, UK

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The opportunity to assess human skeletal remains from Norton Priory, near Runcorn (Cheshire), led to the discovery of peri-mortem blade trauma on an adult male skeleton. The burial evidence suggests that this individual was a wealthy knight and lay
Transcript
  Journal of the Chester  ArchaeologicalSociety Volume 86 for 2016 The Society notes with sorrow the death on 1March 2017 of its Vice-President, Prof Dai Morgan Evans FSA, Hon MiFA.An obituary will appear in the next volume of the  Journal. Papers relating to the Architecture, Archaeology and History of the County, City and Neighbourhood of Chester Edited byPETER CARRINGTON withJanet Axworthy, Dan Garner and Alan Williams Chester 2017  © Chester Archaeological Society and contributors 2017ISSN 0309-359X Abbreviations The abbreviations used in this volume follow the system laid down in British Standard 4148 part 2; many of the most relevant abbreviations are listed in Signposts for archaeological publication  ed 3.London: Council for British Archaeology, 1991.http://www.archaeologyuk.org/sites/www.britarch.ac.uk/files/node-files/signposts_archpub_3rded.pdf  Contributions The Society welcomes articles about the architecture, archaeology and history of the pre-1974 county of Cheshire and adjoining areas. If you are interested in contributing, please contact the Editorial Subcommittee, email chesterarchaeologicalsociety@gmail.com.For notes on the scope, presentation, content and organisation of contributions, and on house style, see  www.chesterarchaeolsoc.org.uk/contributors.html.Designed and produced for the Society by aquarium graphic design limited www.aquariumgd.co.uk ii  Contents List of illustrations ivList of tables v I: Obituaries1: Gerald Cavendish Grosvenor, 6th Duke of Westminster 1KG, CB, CVO, OBE,TD, CD, DL  Janet Axworthy 2: Dr Alistair (Sandy) Campbell JP  Janet Axworthy  3 II: Book reviews1: Rowan Patel The windmills and watermills of Wirral:  5 a historical survey  Roy Coppack  2: Susan Chambers (editor) Neston: stone age to steam age  7  Peter Carrington III: Hunting for the gatherers and eariy farmers of Cheshire: 11an investigation of prehistoric land use in Chapel field, Poulton  Kevin Cootes, Ron Cowell and Anne Teather with illustrations by Janet Axworthy IV: South Arclid Quarry, Sandbach, 2009-2014: a Bronze Age burnt 33 mound and other archaeological discoveries  Nigel W Jones with   contributions by Phillipa Bradley, Lome Elliott and Fiona Grant  V: AEthelfrith and the Battle of Chester Clive Tolley  51 VI: Gamul Terrace and the Viking connection Stephen E Harding   97 VII: A knight's tale: a rare case of inter-personal violence 109 from medieval Norton Priory S Curtis-Summers, Anthea E Boylston and Alan R Ogden VIII: Milton Street, Chester, 2016: sample excavation of a Civil 121 War ditch  Leigh Dodd with a contribution by Denise Druce IX: Notes1: Cheshire National Mapping Programme (NMP) and lidar project: 131 sampling the Peak fringe, Cheshire plain and Mersey valley  Ian Hardwick  X: Cheshire past in 20141: Sites investigated  Mark Leah  135 2: Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme 141 Vanessa Oakden Council and Officers for theYear 2015/16161  Illustrations 111.1Location map showing trenches 13111.2 Shelf overlooking the Pulford Brook 14111.3.1 Illustrated flints 1-8 20111.3.2 Illustrated flints 9-18 21111.4 Stone plaque 24111.5 Polished stone axe 25IV.1 Location of South Arclid quarry and plan showing archaeological features 34and the basin mireIV. 2 Plan of the spread of material associated with the burnt mound 36IV.3 Section of Pit [14] showing the location of the radiocarbon sample 36IV.4 Pit [14] showing the depositional sequence 37IV. 5 The excavation of the burnt mound 43V. 1Topography of the Heronbridge area, as envisaged for the time of the battle 66of Chester V. 2 British and English kingdoms 73VI. 1Nineteenth-century map showing distribution of parish/township names 98in WirralVI.2 Distribution map of place names in-carr and-holm in Wirral 99VI.3 Distribution map of all field/track names in Wirral containing Scandinavian 101elementsVI.4a Parts of 1398 rental of Henry de Sutton, Abbot of Chester 102VI.4b Entry for Richard Hondesson 102VI.4c Entry for Agnes Hondesdoghter and Johanna Hondesdoghter 102Vl.4d Entry for Mabilla Raynaldesdoghter 102VI.5 Plan of tenth-century Chester 104VI.6 St Olave's Church, Lower Bridge Street, Chester 105VI.7 Gamul Terrace 105VII.1Location of Norton Priory 110VII.2 Burial SK22 111VII.3 Plan of burials at Norton Priory 112VII.4a Right side view ofT1-T8 112Vll.4b Areas on the body affected by blade trauma 112VII.5 Enlarged right lateral view ofT1-T3 113VII.6 3-D scan ofT1-T8 114VII.7 Anterior view of the skull showing pagetic thickening of the cranium 116VII.8 Anterior view of the right scapula showing pagetic thickening and 116disorganised new boneVIII. Location of the site 123VIII.2 Excavated section across ditch [107] 123VIII.3 Location of Milton Street and Seller Street sites with possible line of ditch marked 126VIII.4 Location of Milton Street and Seller Street ditches superimposed on 128conjectural plan of Civil War defences iv  IX.1Lidar image showing a potential Roman fortlet enclosure in a meander 132of the River DeeX.1.1 Portable Roman altar from Nos 51-57 Upper Northgate Street, Chester 137X.1.2 North wall of the Roman granary at Weaver Street and Commonhall Street, 138Chester X.1.3 Roman surface at Gorse Stacks, Chester 139X.2.1 Early Bronze Age flat axe from Agden 143X.2.2 Late Bronze Age spearhead from Hulme Walfield 144X.2.3 Early Iron Age sickle from Hulme Walfield 144X.2.4 Possible Iron Age stud from Lowe rWithington 145X.2.5 Copper alloy provincial Greek nummus  of Severus Alexander from Chester 145X.2.6 Roman copper alloy hairpin from Farndon 146X.2.7 Roman coin hoard from Peover Superior during excavation at the British Museum 147X.2.8 Roman coin hoard from Peover Superior during excavation at the British Museum 147X.2.9 Early medieval copper alloy strap end from Foulk Stapleford 148X.2.10 Early medieval copper alloy cross-staff head mount from Hulme Walfield 149X.2.11 Early medieval copper alloy stirrup-strap mount from Somerford 149X.2.12 Medieval lead alloy ampulla from Baddiley 151X.2.13 Penny of Henry III from Barrow 151X.2.14 Medieval metal vessel fragment from Neston 152X.2.15 Medieval copper alloy seal matrix from Swettenham 152X.2.16 Obverse ofTudor coins in hoard from Buerton 154X.2.17 Reverse ofTudor coins in hoard from Buerton 154X.2.18 Wooden sundial found with Tudor coin hoard at Buerton, showing case with lid 155X.2.19 Wooden sundial found with Tudor coin hoard at Buerton, showing case 155without lidX.2.20 Lead alloy and iron dress hook from Great Boughton 156X.2.21 Post-medieval silver toothpick/ear scoop 156 Tables 111.1Lithic assemblage quantified by type of raw material, trench and no of pieces 15111.2 Knapping stages quantified by trench and no of pieces 16111.3 Larger flake and blade debitage quantified by trench and no of pieces 16111.4 Retouched implements quantified by form, trench and no of pieces 18IV.1 Palaeoenvironmental analysis of samples from Pit [14] 40IV.2 Charcoal analysis of the samples from Pit [14] 41IV.3 Pollen analysis from base of peat Core 2 45VIII.1Finds from ditch [107] 124VIII.2 Palaeoenvironmental assessment results of fill (105) from ditch [107] 125X.1.1 Fieldwork carried out in Cheshire in 2015/16 quantified by local authority area 135X.2.1 PAS finds from Cheshire in 2015 quantified by local authority area and period 142X.2.2 PAS finds from Cheshire in 2015 quantified by local authority area and function 142 v
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