News & Politics

27 pages
4 views

A COMPARISON OF SCANNING TECHNOLOGIES FOR ARCHIVAL MOTION PICTURE FILM

of 27
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Share
Description
In the past couple of decades technology in the scanning of film has developed rapidly and opened doors to the digitisation of archival films. The century old motion picture films can now be resurrected in their former glory but with this wide array
Transcript
    HAUSARBEIT DIGITALISIERUNG VON KULTURGUT: A COMPARISON OF SCANNING TECHNOLOGIES FOR ARCHIVAL MOTION PICTURE FILM Zu Händen: Dr. Gerard Maier Landesarchiv Baden-Württemberg Michelle S. Carlos Master-Studiengang »Konservierung Neuer Medien und Digitaler Information« 02. August, 2013   " Table of Contents ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................................................................................... 3 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................................ 3 BACKGROUND ON FILM ................................................................................................................................................... 4 Film Substrates ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4 Film Gauges ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5 Common Film Damages and Issues ................................................................................................................................................................ 6 DIGITISATION .................................................................................................................................................................... 8 Background on Digital Intermediate .............................................................................................................................................................. 8 Digitization Essentials .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 9 Aspect Ratio ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9 Resolution ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 10 RGB Channels ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 11 Bit Depth and Colour Space ....................................................................................................................................................................... 11 Colour Sampling Ratio ................................................................................................................................................................................ 12 Formats ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 12 SCANNING TECHNOLOGY .............................................................................................................................................. 13 Scanning Process ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 13  Telecine ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14 Flying-spot Scanner ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 15 Line Array CCD ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 16 Datacine .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 17 Film Scanners ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 18 Intermittent Scan ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 19 Continuous Scan ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 20 Wet Gate ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 21 Standard Gate ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 22 Comparison Tables ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 22 CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................................................................... 26 What is suitable for archival film? ................................................................................................................................................................. 26 SELECTED RESOURCES ................................................................................................................................................... 27   # 1.   ABSTRACT In the past couple of decades technology in the scanning of film has developed rapidly and opened doors to the digitisation of archival films. The century old motion picture films can now be resurrected in their former glory but with this wide array of options available, users are in constant inevitable dilemma: which scanner technology to use? What is a telecine and a film scanner?  This paper will present the different scanning technologies, its benefits and limitations as a crucial process in the digitisation of motion picture film. Some history on the development of the technology and essential technical specifications will also be explained to aid in selecting the best technology in archival film scanning as well as some film basics to fully understand the medium used for this process. 2.   INTRODUCTION Scanning is an important step in the digitisation of archival film—it is the first step that allows the media to be ingested into the digitisation workflow. It is the process of capturing the image using a device, which converts the images into video signals as in the case of telecines and into data with the use of film scanners in high quality and high resolutions for use in various digital processes such as restoration, colour correction, remastering or simply duplication. As with any digitisation projects, the purpose of scanning is to enable access of the media in digital form with preservation as a natural by-product. With archives all over the world racing against time to save their film collections, it’s also a race among developers in the post-production industry to come up with the best solution in archiving, digitizing and restoring motion picture films. There is a wildfire movement among film archives to get their precious film collections digitized, provided there is appropriated funding, of course. This is enforced by the development of new products that will meet every requirement in preserving film in digital formats. Naturally many questions arise in the proper scanning of a valuable and fragile cultural medium such as film. A basic question will be, which hardware to use? How does this hardware handle the film? How do we go about with the process? And finally, how much is it? Protection of the srcinal object is always a concern among archivists and conservators. Therefore minimum requirements for scanning are often set to ensure the safety of the srcinal object and quality of the digitized copy. In 1999, while advocating a “preservation mindset”, the Colorado Digitization Program suggested general guidelines for scanning at a minimum level for their digitisation projects. These guidelines may also be true and applicable even up to now: •   Scanning at the highest resolution appropriate to the informational content of the srcinals •   Scanning at an appropriate level of quality to avoid rescanning and re-handling of the srcinals in the future—scan once •   Creating and storing a master image file that can be used to produce derivative image files and serve a   $ variety of current and future user needs •   Using system components that are nonproprietary •   Using image file formats and compression techniques that conform to industry standards •   Creating backup copies of all files on a stable medium •   Creating meaningful metadata for image files or collections •   Storing media in an appropriate environment •   Monitoring and recopying data as necessary •   Outlining a migration strategy for transferring data across generations of technology •   Anticipating and planning for future technological developments Digitisation is expensive and always dependent on many decision factors. More than 20 years ago, archives and producers alike were still struggling on which technology would meet their needs for the digitisation and archiving of their precious film collections. In this day and age, that concern is already blurring as more and more options are becoming available in the market. Even more facilities are offering services that will best suit such requirements and deliver the best possible results. The only question now is which system to use and if it is worth the cost. 3.   BACKGROUND ON FILM 3.1.   Film Substrates 3.1.1.   Nitrate For the growing motion picture industry, the increase in the usage of plastic based film took a leap only after 1889. This type of material was used in still cameras in the form of roll film or sheet film. At that time the only available material was cellulose nitrate, which was already used in photographic processes as in collodion binders. The chemical properties of this product are similar to that of guncotton. Although extremely flammable, it is not explosive because it is not heavily nitrated. It does however constitute a fire hazard in large quantities. Once ignited it will continue to burn and therefore cannot be extinguished until it burned itself out. Because of its chemical instability and high combustibility that caused many disastrous fire incidents, the usage of cellulose nitrate was banned and eventually the manufacture was stopped in the 1950s. Particularly on motion picture film reels, strict prohibitions for the usage, transport and storage were implemented. Nitrate films are also known to self-destruct even in proper storage conditions. The decomposition is inevitable and irreversible. 3.1.2.   Acetate Because it does not have combustible properties, “safety film” or cellulose triacetate, which was acetate-based had phased-out cellulose nitrates and was commonly used in 1951. Most 16mm and almost all 8mm films used for home movies and amateur industrial or educational filmmaking are acetate. Kodak was the first company to introduce celluloid acetate film in 1925.   % Acetate films are always entwined with its disease, “vinegar syndrome.” This has the characteristic odor of vinegar due to the off-gassing acidic fumes as the material decomposes. This decomposition happens at a very rapid state, which can easily spread and affect other acetate films. This material also becomes brittle and shrinks over time. 3.1.3.   Polyester Polyester is a much stronger film base and cannot be torn unlike acetate. It has far better chemical stability than its predecessors. Its strength has also been taken as a disadvantage because of its resistance to breakage. Splicing with cement is impossible and it also has the tendency to break the film equipment should a jam or extra tension occur 1 , therefore it was not used as the srcinal negative for shooting movies. Also known as Mylar or Estar, it was introduced in the 1950s and has been the preferred film base until now. It is humidity and heat tolerant and it is estimated that newer films are expected to last up to 500 years. 3.2.   Film Gauges  The most common film gauge standards (35mm, 16mm, 8mm and Super 8mm) 3.2.1.   35 mm Using the film stock that George Eastman supplied, William Dickinson with Thomas Edison first used the 35 mm width film in 1892 for Edison’s Kinetoscope, the predecessor of film projectors. In 1909 the 35 mm with 4 perforations became the international standard for film gauges and has since remained the dominant format. Despite its relative high cost, 35 mm was still preferred because of the quality of the image captured. Advancing technology coupled with declining prices of digital movie cameras is slowly phasing out the use of film. 1  Wikipedia 2  The measurements given here have been taken from the ASA and ISO Standards. Restoration of Motion Picture Film, 2000 3  National Television Systems Committee, used in the US, South America and parts of Asia 4  Phase Alternating Line, used in Europe and parts of Asia 5  Sequentiel Couleur avec Mémoire, used in France, Russia and parts of Africa
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks
SAVE OUR EARTH

We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

More details...

Sign Now!

We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!

x