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Dual energy source running vehicles are not so familiar. But this system is environment friendly and more effective for the developing countries transportation system. This technology is a growing one now. This paper is basically focused on
   Case study A CASE STUDY ON ‘DUAL ENERGY SOURCE RUNNING VEHICLE’, IT’S DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION IN BANGLADESH Md. Arman Arefin 1 , Avijit Mallik 2 and Imran Rashid Mujawar 3   1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, RUET, Rajshahi, Bangladesh 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, RUET, Rajshahi, Bangladesh 3 Department   of Mechanical Engineering, Walchand College of Engineering, Maharashtra, India E-mail:, Abstract: Dual energy source running vehicles are not so familiar. But this system is environment friendly and more effective for the developing countries transportation system. This technology is a growing one now. This paper is basically focused on developing a dual energy source running vehicle system which would be more environment friendly and less fuel consuming. The system will basically use thermal energy and solar energy. The new thing introduced here is the number of batteries will be less and those will operate on a rechargeable condition through solar system and also a new type of gear arrangement has been introduced here. Our center of interest is mainly on Bangladeshi common vehicles. How those can be transformed into environment friendly ones? For example- An Auto rickshaw can be transformed into a Dual energy source running vehicle. The system is theoretical and further experimentation is needed to develop it perfectly. Here the paper will explain the basic theory. Keywords: Environment friendly vehicle, dual source vehicle, Fuel efficient vehicle, Solar running vehicle. Objectives 1.   To introduce a new type of vehicle 2.   To introduce a less fuel consuming and more environment friendly vehicle 3.   To find out the system’s short-comings and advantages 1.   Introduction Bangladesh is a developing country. Bangladesh is developing in all sectors day by day. But the road condition in Bangladesh is not satisfactory. In small cities and villages many roads are broken or not repaired properly or narrow. Sometimes in big cities like Dhaka, Chittagong some broken and narrower roads are seen. This is one of the main reasons of accident. Because of these broken roads travelling requires more time. Many vehicles cannot run on these broken or narrow roads. International Journal of Science, Environment ISSN 2278-3687 (O) and Technology, Vol. 6, No 4, 2017, 2369 – 2385 2277-663X (P)  Received June 24, 2017 * Published Aug 2, 2017 *     2370 Md. Arman Arefin, Avijit Mallik    and Imran Rashid Mujawar   There are mainly 3 types of transport/vehicle in Bangladesh according to travel distance, time and road condition. [1]  1)   Road transport 2)   Train transport 3)   Water transport Road transport: There are several vehicles out there in Bangladesh running on the road. [2]  1)   Bus – Long distance vehicle 2)   Truck-Long distance vehicle 3)   Auto rickshaw – Medium and Short distance vehicle 4)   Rickshaw – Short distance vehicle. 5)   Motor cycle e.t.c Normally, Bus is used to travel from one city to another. It is a long distance travelling transport. Truck is used for carrying different goods from one city to another. Rickshaw is used to got to a very short distance. Whenever it is necessary to travel 1 Km-7 Km (approximately) rickshaw is used. Auto-rickshaw is mostly used to travel at any distance inside a city or area. Auto rickshaw is the most used vehicle in Bangladesh. It is familiar all over in Bangladesh. Mainly inside a rickshaw and auto rickshaw are used. But auto rickshaw is faster, comfortable than rickshaw. IT has more space too than a typical rickshaw. The word rickshaw’s is srcinated from Japanese language, and it translates to “a human-powered vehicle”. The term was first used in 1887.In Bangladesh the rickshaw began as a two or three-wheeled Passenger cart, called a pulled rickshaw, generally pulled by one man with one or two Passenger. The rickshaw is one of the oldest mode of transportation, and it is a source of Employment for male labors in Bangladesh from the 19th century. The auto-rickshaw and the relatively newer iteration of the e-rickshaws (electronic rickshaw).Because of their low cost auto rickshaw is becoming more popular than taxies in 21 st  century. Auto-rickshaws are a common means of public transportation in many countries in the world. They are Also known as a three-wheeler, samosa, tempo, tuk-tuk, trishaw, autorick, bajaj, tricycle, mototaxi, baby taxi or lapa in popular parlance, an auto rickshaw is a usually three-wheeled cabin cycle for private use and as a vehicle for hire. Battery operated auto-rickshaw is a newly added Para-transit mode in urban transportation system of Bangladesh. [1]  There are many different auto rickshaw types, designs, and variations. The most common type is characterized by a sheet-metal body or open frame resting on three wheels, a canvas roof with drop-down side curtains, a small cabin at the front for the driver (sometimes known    A Case Study on ‘Dual Energy Source Running Vehicle’, It’s Design …. 2371   as an auto-wallah) with handlebar controls, and a cargo, passenger, or dual purpose space at the rear. [2]  At present in Bangladesh the fuel price is increasing day by day. Thats why the auto rickshaw drivers are claiming more money from the passengers. Moreover, using petrol, gas etc are not good for the environment. They release different types of deadly gas and chemicals to the atmosphere which is very dangerous and harmful for humans and animals. In this paper a mechanism of using two power sources to run an auto rickshaw is shown and described. Here solar energy and thermal energy is used to run the rickshaw separately. There are several reasons behind this work. These are stated below 1)   Bangladesh gets huge amount of energy from the sun. In Bangladeshthe highest sunlight hours received is in Khulna with readings ranging from 2.86 to 9.04 hours and in Barisal with readings ranging from 2.65 to 8.75 hours [3]  2)   Fuel price is increasing day by day. 3)   Combining with solar energy will reduce environmental pollution. 2.   Theory: [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17]   Here two power sources are combined. One is solar power and other is thermal power. The solar power will be utilized by motor and the thermal power is utilized by the engine. in this duel energy source vehicle two power source is not being used at a time, only one power source is used at a time. When one is running the engine then the other is off and when the other source is running the engine then the first one remains off. Fig: 1- Schematic Diagram of the proposed system  2372 Md. Arman Arefin, Avijit Mallik    and Imran Rashid Mujawar   The sun is the main source of energy. The outer atmosphere of the sun gets enormous amount of energy.PV cell is used to produce electrical energy from solar energy. PV cell uses solar light energy and converts it to electrical energy. Electrical energy is then stored to the battery (energy storage device). Battery runs the motor. The motor rotates the axle and the wheel of the rickshaw rotates. The other source is thermal energy source. Fuel (petrol) has chemical energy which when used in an engine converts to Thermal energy and this thermal energy is converted to mechanical energy, which is supplied to the vehicle keeping the wheel running. These two sources of energy are separately used in the vehicle and separately keep the vehicle running at different times. 3.   Mathematical Modeling: This paper is mainly based on a duel energy source vehicle. Here, two sources will be operated separately. The sources used in this vehicle are solar energy source and thermal energy source (2 stroke IC engine). By using energy created by sunlight the PV module will run and using necessary fuel (petrol) 2 stroke petrol engine (Tata ace engine -1993) will run. The mathematical modeling is shown below: 3.1.   Engine calculation: According to Physics, Power is the rate of doing work. It is the amount of energy consumed per unit time. Engine power also known as Horse Power is the power that an engine can impose upon. The power output depends on the design and the size of the engine along with load or torque and the running speed. [10], [12]  Indicated power also known as Indicated Horsepower developed inside the engine cylinder by burning fuel. It is the theoretical power of a reciprocating engine converting the expanding gas energy in the cylinder if it is considered as completely frictionless. But in physical process, two types of friction are observed in the running vehicle .these are 1) Internal friction (piston sliding inside cylinder, bearing friction, gear box friction etc.) 2) External friction (friction in running wheel, environmental friction etc.) So two types of excess power have to be calculated. These are 1) Break power 2) frictional power. [10], [11], [12], [13]  Necessary formulas for calculating these two powers are: Power equation for IC engine-    A Case Study on ‘Dual Energy Source Running Vehicle’, It’s Design …. 2373   Indicated Power, IP =    .  ...  ×k  (Watts) [10]  Here, P m = Actual mean effective pressure in Bar L = Length of strokes in meters A = Area of the piston in sq. meters n = Number of working strokes k= Number of cylinders n = N/2 ; N= Speed of the engine in rpm In case of pony Break, Break Power, BP =  .ℿ. (Watts) [10]  Here, T = Torque in N-m N = Speed of the engine in rpm T = W .l ; W= Break Load in Newton, l = Length of arm in meters In case of rope brake, BP =  . π ..  (Watts) [10]  Here, S = Spring balance readings in Newton D = Diameter of brake drum d = Diameter of rope Frictional Power, FP, = Indicated Power – Break Power [10]  The selected engine is TATA ace-1993 model. The specification of the engine is given below- Dimensions Value with unit Engine type Naturally aspirated petrol(SI) Manufacturer Ford Cylinder V2 Capacity 4.9 litre Bore * Stroke 101.6*76.2 mm Bore stroke ratio 1.33 Valve gear OHV(2 valves per cylinder)
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